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Definition
Human aging is a biological process, no one can stop, but delay it. It is possible that one person has a physiological younger than his or her biological age if one engages in healthy living life style and eating healthily by increasing the intake of good healthy food such as whole grain, fruits, vegetables, beans and legumes, etc. and reducing the consumption of harmful foods, such as saturated fat, trans fat, artificial ingredients, etc.

Theories of aging
What cause aging? The question that has been asked throughout the human history, but it doesn't seem to get any answer but raises many more unanswered question. While many theories try to answer the question by related aging to tear and wear of the body, others deal with how the organs and systems in the body develop and deteriorate overtime, etc.


1. Somatic mutation theory
In this theory, aging is due to our inherited genes that come directly from our parents. Since the conception occurred, our body cells continue to divide and replication themselves. Since the division and replication are a life long precess at some point, for what ever reason, if cells division and replication can process incorrectly, leading to mutation of incorrect copy of DNA. Although the cause of this incorrect process are unknown, but researchers found that exposures to toxins, radiation or ultraviolet light, artificial ingredients, unhealthy life style, etc. can increase the risk of cells mutation and the cells copied incorrectly can mutate themselves, leading to accumulation of incorrect gene cells that trigger a chain reaction of an auto-catalytic nature in producing more and more fincorrect gene cell, until it finally is brought under controlled, this processes can lead to aging. As an organism, the immune system tries to destroy or scavenger these mutated genes but at some points, it is over whelming, leading chronic age related diseases.

2. Error catastrophe theory
The error catastrophe of aging, originally proposed by Leslie Orgel in 1963. Our body immune system helps to maintain the structural integrity of DNA not only for cell survival but also for the transfer of correct genetic information to the daughter cells. Error catastrophe indicated that alterations DNA and the incorrect placement of amino acids in protein synthesis could result in a progressive degradation aging as a result of these abnormal protein are no longer functioning as chemical passengers or signalers.

3. Protein glycosylation
Protein glycosylation is a result of chemical reaction of glucose with vary proteins, including enzyme, elastin and collagen in the blood. The cross linked protein glycosylation leads to cell to cell adhesion causing stiffness and rigidity of individual cells, reducing the cells function in taking nutrients and expelling waste.
If the cross link protein glycosylation occurs in the elastin and collagen, it will cause brittle skin, causing aging, but it happens in the organs it will be more serious and sometimes life threatening.

4. The neuroendocrine theory
First proposed by Professor Vladimir Dilman and Ward Dean MD, this theory postulates on wear and tear of the neuroendocrine system. In neuroendocrine system, the master pituitary gland secrets hormones to direct other glands in secreting their hormones and works conjunction with the hypothalamus glands form a command post in the nervous system in closely direct the function of most of the body functions.
but as we age, the hypothalamus loses its ability as a hormone regulator as its receptors of which uptake other gland hormones become less sensitive to them, including sex hormones, DHEA, serotonin, melatonin, etc.
As for cortisol, a hormone secreted by the adrenal glands due to stress, is produced with abundance as we age.

5. Immune system decline theory
As we age, our immune system is weakening that cause us become vulnerable to the dangerous pathogens, including microbial and viral invasion. Within the immune system, the thymus glands which play an important role in helping formation of the immune system scavenger that reduces the function of immune system further that allow irregular cell growth cause of aging spot, tumors, cancer, infection, inflammation and onset of chronic illness.

6. Genetic programming theory
Genetic programming theory propose that aging is programmed as the cells cycle in our body are also genetic program since their inception. the explanation is that all the cells are undergoing certain time in division over the a said amount of time before dying, leading to conclusion that people with the long live genetic program live longer than others who do not.
The theory also emphasizes the genetic diseases as a result of genetic programing diminished life span, regardless external and internal influence.
Further refinement of the programmed senescence theory was developed by Bernard Strehler, who proposed that as cells are program to perform specific functions within the organism that cause them to lose some of the ability to duplicate their genetic information, leading to aging.

7. Hayflick limit
The Hayflick limit (or Hayflick Phenomena) theory discovered by Leonard Hayflick and a biologist in 1966. In vitro study, the number of times a fibroblast diploid cells will divide before it stops. The discover is conferring a major hypothesis if the cell division can prolong in a infinite matter without conditions which cause damage of the cells, then organism can liver forever.
Exceptions:
Stem cells
Since stem cells can continue to regenerate new cells for the entire lifespan of the organism, without limit, thus constituting a notable exception to the Hayflick limit theory.
Cancer cells
Cancer cell in biological aspect, have found a way around the limit by becoming a group of immortalized cells produced from cell division that have no limit as to how many times this immortalized cell division might take place.

8. The telomerase theory
The tolomerrase theory is a continuation of support to the Hayflick limit (or Hayflick Phenomena) theory involved in telomeres and telomerase. Telomeres are the structure at the end of the chromosome. As each time the cell divides, its telomeres is shortened, at certain length, the cell stops division and goes into senescence.
The experiment shows, the cell senescence can be reversed by controlling the genes of telomerase autocatalytic nature, which in turn, promotes the forever cell division capacity

9. The free radical theory
A free radical is any atom or molecule that has a single unpaired electron in an outer shell and highly reactive to react with other cell, which in turn, causes oxidative damage to the enzymes, other protein, unsaturated fatty acid, phospho-lipids, DNA and RNA, etc., leading to aging of the organisms, as a result of widespread damage due to set of a chain reaction auto-catalytically after attacking the lipid bilayers of the cell walls.

10. Other theories
a. Rate of living and lifespan
Rate of living is defined that a bigger organism, the longer it lives with human is one of the exception due to its slower rate of metabolism and lower rate of free radical activity, leading to low levels of age lipid pigment, resulting in longer life span. Experiment show that there 100,000 free radicals hit everyday in rat, comparing 10, 000 in human.
b. Caloric restriction
Caloric restriction hypothesis suggested in a study of young rat showed that if a rat is put into restricted diet with given of necessary nutrients, it lives longer than those were allowed to eat freely. With the result also the same in the old rat, the theory also suggest eating less may cause less toxins in the body that affects the immune system and reduces the risk of hormone change, leading to free radicals cause of aging.
c. Age spots
Age spots are mainly composed of lipofuscin and lipopigment caused by reaction of free radical and peroxidation, leading to the formation of age spot, as a result of oxygen species interact with autophagocytic degradation occurring inside the lysosomes.
d. Protein oxidation
Protein oxidation cay affect protein function in normal and pathological processes as a result of postranslation protein being alter by reduce oxygen species (ROS) cause of damage to enzyme, leading to dysfunction of its role resulting in aging.
e. Fast track of aging
The theory suggest that there are many of diseases and syndromes of which can contribute to faster track to aging
* Hutchison-Gilford syndrome
It is an extremely rare genetic condition wherein symptoms resembling aspects of aging are manifested at an early age. Those born with progeria typically live to thirteen years, although many have been known to live into their late teens and early twenties and rare individuals may even reach their forties due to genes mutation.
*Werner syndrome
It is Adult progeria, an disorder causes the appearance of premature aging. The syndrome does not develop until they reach puberty is caused by autosomal recessive disorder due to alter gene on chromosome 8.
f. Altered genes
Alter genes are the work of Friedman and Johnson 1988 " .... the effect of elevated expression of SIR2 in yeast appears to be conserved in C. elegans (Tissenbaum & Guarente 2001) and Drosophila (Rogina & Helfand 2004), and mutations in genes encoding components of the target of rapamycin (TOR) pathway also extend the lifespan in all four organisms... "
"... It was originally suspected that extension of lifespan by reduced IIS might turn out to be a worm peculiarity. This was because mutations in genes in the IIS pathway can also cause the worms to enter a type of developmental arrest (dauer), normally seen only in response to low food or crowding (Riddle & Albert 1997). Dauer larvae are long lived, and the long life of IIS mutant adult worms could therefore have been a result of re-expression in the adult of the genes that make the dauer larva long lived...."
g. Free radical connection
Free radical is any atom or molecule that has a single unpaired electron in an outer shell and accumulation of free radical damage over time can cause aging. Theory is first proposed by Denham Harman in the 1950sand in the 1970s extended the idea to implicate mitochondrial production of reactive oxygen species into the 1970s. Study showed that nutant strains of the roundworm that are more susceptible to free radicals have shortened lifespans, and those with less susceptibility have longer lifespans
If free radical causes damage to the DNA repaired enzymes, it can increase the risk of unrepaired DNA damage, leading protein synthesis incorrectly. In fact, free radicals can inflict damage to all celsl in body such as endocrine glands, leading to decreasing of hormone secretion, resulting in aging and Kupffer cell in liver, causing endotoxins accumulated in the blood, leading to more free radicals attacks the immune system, etc.

10. Hormone depletion
The researchers found that if an decrease or absence of the pituitary gland hormones mice is given enough amount of pituitary hormones, it lives longer than a control group of normal mice as it stimulates the production of growth and other hormones such as prolactin, adrenocorticotropic hormone, thyroid-stimulating hormone, etc.

11. etc.

Most Common Types of Free Radicals
Free radicals are atoms, molecules, or ions with unpaired electrons through chemical bonds with other atoms or molecules during a chemical reaction. They may have positive, negative or zero charge. The unpaired electrons cause radicals to be highly chemically reactive in the human body, leading to aging and cancers.
1. Hydroxyl radical (OH•)
The hydroxyl radical, is the neutral form of the hydroxide ion (OH–). It is produced from the decomposition of hydroperoxides (ROOH) by the reaction of an elevation in energy level above an arbitrary baseline energy state molecular oxygen with water.
The hydroxyl radical is highly reactive and has a very short in vivo half-life of approx. 10−9 s This makes it a very dangerous compound to the organism. Hydroxyl radical cannot be eliminated by an enzymatic reaction and can damage virtually all types of macromolecules: carbohydrates, nucleic acids (mutations), lipids (lipid peroxidation) and amino acids, that makes it a very danger compound to shorten the life span of human being.

2. Superoxide anion radical (O2–•)
A superoxide anion is a compound that possesses an atom or molecule in which the total number of electrons is not equal to the total number of protons, giving it a net positive or negative electrical charge with the chemical formula O2− with one unpaired electron, leading to the generating of superoxide anion free radical.
Mutations in the gene coding for the NADPH oxidase cause immune deficiency chronic granulomatous disease, leading to extreme susceptibility to infection and pathogenesis of many diseases, including aging.


3. Singlet oxygen
Singlet oxygen is the common name used for the diamagnetic form of molecular oxygen (O2), which is less stable than the normal triplet oxygen. In biological study, species, Singlet oxygen causes oxidation of LDL cholesterol and resultant cardiovascular effects.
Since singlet oxygen with activation by light can produce severe photosensitivity of skin, leading to skin defects.

4. Hydrogen peroxide
Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is the simplest peroxide, a clear liquid, slightly more viscous than water, that appears colorless in dilute solution. It is considered a highly reactive oxygen species because of its strong oxidizing capacity.
Hydrogen peroxide
A study published in Nature found that hydrogen peroxide plays a role in the immune system by signaling the white blood cells to converge on the site of damage. The process leads to white blood cells did not accumulate at the site of damage, but somewhere else if the gene in production of hydrogen peroxide is altered, causing higher levels of hydrogen peroxide and white blood cells in their lungs accumulation in the lung than healthy people.

5. Lipid peroxyl free radical
Lipid peroxidation is a process in which free radicals steal electrons from the lipids in cell membranes, most often affecting polyunsaturated fatty acids, resulting in damaging to the cell membrane, which consists mainly of lipids, because of chain reaction after initial oxidating by producing even more lipid peroxyl free radicals if not bought under controlled fast enough.

6. Nitric oxide
Nitric oxide is a chemical compound with chemical formula NO. Even though low levels of NO production are important in protecting liver from ischemic damage and contribute to proper smooth muscle contraction and growth, but its free radical and toxic nature can cause DNA damage and inflammation.

7. Alkoxyl radical
Alkoxyl radical which is an alkyl (carbon and hydrogen chain) group singular bonded to oxygen can result in cellular damage caused by oxyfluorfen, a herbicide.

8. Peroxynitrite
Peroxynitrite is the anion with the formula ONOO−reacted quikly with carbon dioxide, leading to forming of carbonate and nitrogen dioxide radicals. If the two radicals do not recombine to form carbon dioxide and nitrate, they can cause peroxynitrite-related cellular damage.

9. Etc.

Antioxidants
A. Antioxidant enzymes
Antioxidant enzymes are chemical substances found in plants that can protect the body from damage of free radicals by terminating the chain reactions by removing free radical intermediates and inhibiting other oxidation reactions.
1. Catalase
Catalase is an enzyme, found in most living organisms that are exposed to oxygen helped to converse hydrogen peroxide (free radicals) to water and oxygen as a rate of 40 million molecules of hydrogen peroxide to water and oxygen each second, using either an iron or manganese cofactor.

2. Glutathione peroxidase
The function of glutathione peroxidase is to protect the organism from oxidative damage by reducing lipid hydroperoxides, an oxidation of lipid cell membranes which can easily break and form free radicals of the form RO and converting free hydrogen peroxide to oxygen and water.

3. Glutathione reductase
Glutathione reductase, an enzyme reduces pair of sulfur atoms glutathione to the a organosulfur compound form of antioxidant (consisting of three amino acids joined by peptide bonds) which helps to prevent damage of important cellular components caused by free radicals and peroxides.

4. Super oxide dismutase (both Cu-Zn and Mn)
Super oxide dismutase is an important antioxidant defense in nearly all cells exposed to oxygen by converting superoxide into oxygen and hydrogen peroxide depending on the metal cofactor such as both Cu-Zn and Mn.

B. Metals binding proteins
1. Ceruloplasmin
Ceruloplasmin, the major copper-carrying protein in the blood plays a role in iron metabolism. It prevents the oxidation that leads to the forming of oxidation from Fe2+ (ferrous iron) into Fe3+ (ferric iron) by exhibiting a copper-dependent oxidase activity, causing mutations in the ceruloplasmin gene cause of iron overload in the brain, liver, pancreas, and retina.

2. Ferritin
Ferritin, the protein produced by almost all living organisms, acts as a component to fight against iron deficiency and iron overload, keep in a soluble and non-toxic form and transport it to the body needs, including organs. It enhances the immune system in the presence of an infection or cancer and prevent the infectious agent attempts to bind iron to become free radicals by migrating from the plasma to within cells.

3. Lactoferrin
Lactoferrin, a multifunctional protein of the transferrin family, is one of the components of the immune system of the body by fighting against foreign invasion of bacteria and virus and lipid oxidation by inhibiting oxidation in a concentration-dependent manner even at concentrations beyond its capacity.

4. Metallotheinein
Metallotheinein, a family of cysteine-rich, low molecular weight proteins helps to bind both physiological heavy metals through the organosulfur compound of its cysteine residues. It also captures harmful superoxide and hydroxyl radicals by liberating the metal ions which were bound to cysteine.

5. Transferrin
Transferrin is a glycoprotein that binds iron very tightly but reversibly. It enhance the immune system in fighting against infection, inflammation by creating an environment low in free iron that impedes bacteria survival and cell oxidation.

6. Hemoglobin
Hemoglobin is the protein molecule in red blood cells that enhances the carrying of oxygen from the lungs to the body's tissues and return CO2 from the tissues to the lungs.
During oxidate stress, the cell membrane is protected by intraerythrocytic hemoglobin from the forming of free radical.

7. Myoglobin
Myoglobin is an iron- and oxygen-binding protein found in the muscle tissue of vertebrates. The binding of oxygen by myoglobin is unaffected by the oxidation or chain of oxidative reaction in the surrounding tissue, thus reducing the free radicals damage caused by oxidate stress.

8. Etc.

C. Common antioxidants (scavengers)
1. Bilirubin
Bilirubin is a prosthetic group which helps to break down molecules into smaller units in releasing energy, excreted in bile and urine. It is a cellular antioxidant, by reverting to biliverdin, a green tetrapyrrolic bile pigment, once again when oxidized that inhibits the effects of mutagens.

2. Carotenoids
Carotenoids are organic pigments, occurring in the chloroplasts and chromoplasts of plants and some other photosynthetic organisms like algae, some bacteria.
a. Beta-carotene
Beta-Carotene, an organic compound and classified as a terpenoid, a strongly-coloured red-orange pigment in plants and fruits.
a.1. It is not toxic and stored in liver for the production of vitamin A that inhibits cancer cell in experiment. Beta-carotene also neutralize singlet oxygen before giving rise of free radicals which can damage of DNA, leading to improper cell DNA replication, causing cancers.
a.2. Cell communication
Researcher found that beta-carotene enhances the communication between cell can reduce the risk of cancer by making cells division more reliable.
a.3. Immune system
Beta-carotene promotes the immune system in identifying the foreign invasion such as virus and bacteria by increasing the quality of MHC2 protein in maintaining optimal function of white cells.
a.4. Polyunsaturated fat
Researchers found that beta-carotene also inhibits the oxidation of polyunsaturated fat and lipoprotein in the blood that reduce the risk of plaques build up onto the arterial walls, causing heart diseases and stroke.
a.5. There are more benefits of beta-carotene.

b. Alpha-carotene
Alpha-carotene, one of the most abundant carotenoids in the North American diet, is a form of carotene with a β-ring at one end and an ε-ring at the other. It is the second most common form of carotene which not only protects cells from the damaging effects of free radicals and enhances the immune system in fighting against bacteria and virus invasion, but also stimulates the communication between cells thus preventing irregular cell growth cause of cancers.

c. Beta-cryptoxanthin
Beta cryptoxanthin is an antioxidant, beside helping to prevent free radical damage to cells and DNA but also stimulates the repair of oxidative damage to DNA. it enhances the immune function infighting against inflammatory cause of polyarthritis, and irregular cell growth cause of cancer due to oxidation.

d. Lutein
Lutein is one of the most popular North American carotenoids. It is found in greens like kale and spinach as well as the yolk of eggs. Lutein is also found in the human eye. Getting enough lutein in your diet may help to fight off age related macular degeneration, an eye condition.
Researcher has shown that people who do not have enough lutein in their diet will not have enough lutein present in the muscular part of the eye. This is what likely leads to age related macular degeneration that can result in blindness.

e. Zeaxanthin
Zeaxanthin, a most common carotenoid alcohols found in nature, is one of the two primary xanthophyll carotenoids contained within the retina of the eye. Intake of foods providing zeaxanthin with lower incidence of age-related macular degeneration as a result of its function of reducing the risk oxidative stress.

f. Lycopene
Lycopene is a red carotene of the carotenoid group that can be found in tomatoes, watermelons, and grapefruits. This powerful antioxidant is believed to be a powerful fighter of prostate cancer. Lycopene has many anti-aging capabilities as well as one of the most powerful antioxidants in the carotenoid group.

3. Flavonoids
Flavonoids also known as Vitamin P and citrinare a yellow pigments having a structure similar to that of flavones occurred in varies plants. it has been in human history for over thousands of years and discovered by A. S. Szent-Gyorgi in 1930. As he used vitamin C and flavonoids to heal the breakage of capillaries, which caused swelling and obstruction of blood flow. Most plants have more than one group or type act as predominate.
Flavonoids process a property as antioxidants. it helps to neutralize many of reactive oxygen species (ROS), including singlet oxygen, hydroxyl and superoxide radicals.
Although nitric oxide is considered a free radical produced by immune system to destroy bacteria and cancerous cells, but when it is over produced, it causes the production peroxynitrite which may attack protein, lipid and DNA, Flavonoids inhibit NO production of peroxynitrite due to reduction of enzyme expression.
a. Quercetin
Quercetin is a plant-derived flavonoid found in fruits, vegetables, leaves and grains and studies show that quercetin may have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties as a antioxidant, quercetin scavenges free radicals, which damage cell membranes, cause mutation of cells with tampering DNA.

b. Rutin
Rutin is a citrus flavonoid glycoside found in buckwheat and glycoside of the flavonoid quercetin. It inhibits platelet aggregation, decreases the capillary permeability, makes blood thinner and improves circulation. As an antioxidant, it can reduce the cytotoxicity of oxidized LDL cholesterol caused by free radical that lowers the risk of heart diseases.

c. Catechin
Catechin is a natural phenol antioxidant plant and natural anti-bacterial substance. Study showed catechin as good free radical scavenging power inhibits ROS production, thus it can be useful to the development of alimentary strategies to prevent OTA-induced cytotoxicity in human.

d. Etc.

4. Uric acids
Uric acids may have a potential therapeutic role as an antioxidant becuase of its function of inducing oxidative stress, either through creating reactive oxygen species or inhibiting antioxidant systems.
High uric acid can cause arthritis, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, Metabolic syndrome, kidney stones, etc.

5. Thiols (R-SH)
Chemically, thiol, a organosulfur compound has strong odours resembling that of garlic. They are used as odourants to assist in the detection of natural gas. It presents in the amino acid cysseine which helps to the functioning of enzyme regulation, cell signaling, protein trafficking and control of gene expression. As a sulfide residue, thiol plays an important role in cell function of reversal oxidation by interacting with GSSG resulting in formation of intramucolar protein disulfide and GSG.

6. Coenzyme Q10
Coenzyme Q10 is discovered by Dr. Karl Folfers in 1957, beside promotes the chemical reaction, often by speeding it up or allowing it to proceed under less stringent conditions, it also enhances energy production by promoting the process of the production of ATP then serving as fuel for the cells and acts an antioxidant to prevent the generation of free radicals during this process.

7. Vitamin A, C, E. D.
a. Vitamin A
Vitamin A occurs in the form retinol and is best known for its function in maintaining the health of cell membrane, hair, skin, bone, teeth and eyes. It also plays an important role as an antioxidant as it scavenges free radicals in the lining of the mouth and lungs; prevents its depletion in fighting the increased free radicals activity by radiation; boosts immune system in controlling of free radicals; prevents oxidation of LDL and enhances the productions of insulin pancreas.

b. Vitamin C
Vitamin C beside plays an important role in formation and maintenance of body tissues, it as an antioxidant and water soluble vitamin, vitamin C can be easily carry in blood, operate in much of the part of body. By restoring vitamin E, it helps to fight against forming of free radicals. By enhancing the immune system, it promotes against the microbial and viral and irregular cell growth causes of infection and inflammation.
Vitamin C also is a scavenger in inhibiting pollution cause of oxidation.

c. Vitamin E
Vitamin E is used to refer to a group of fat-soluble compounds that include both tocopherols and tocotrienols discovered by researchers Herbert Evans and Katherine Bishop. It beside is important in protecting muscle weakness, repair damage tissues, lower blood pressure and inducing blood clotting in healing wound, etc, it also is one of powerful antioxidant, by moving into the fatty medium to prevent lipid peroxidation, resulting in lessening the risk of chain reactions by curtailing them before they can starts.

d. Vitamin D
Reseacher found that vitamin D, a group of fat-soluble secosteroids is also a membrane antioxidant, with the ability to inhibit iron-dependent lipid peroxidation in liposomes compared to cholesterol.

Others antioxidants
1. Copper
Copper, an essential trace element is essential for the absorption and utilization of iron and distributed widely in the body and occurs in liver, muscle and bone. Deficiency of copper can often cause the anemia-like symptoms. However, ingesting too much of it can lead to generator of free radicals that can damage DNA .

1.1. Antimicrobial and viral Copper enhances the immune function in fighting against foreign invasion, such as bacteria and virus, thus reducing the risk of infection and inflammation by utilizing the absorption of oxygen and production of energy within cells.

1.2. Antioxidant enzyme Superoxide dismutase (SOD)
Copper is vital for the making of antioxidant enzyme, superoxide dismutase, an important antioxidant defense in nearly all cells exposed to oxygen by protecting the cell membranes from free radicals. In fact, it outcompetes damaging reactions of superoxide, thus protecting the cell from superoxide toxicity. Research found in experiment, Mice lacking SOD1(Superoxide dismutase [Cu-Zn]) develop a wide range of pathologies, including hepatocellular carcinoma, an acceleration of age-related muscle mass loss,an earlier incidence of cataracts and a reduced lifespan. Mice lacking SOD3(Extracellular superoxide dismutase [Cu-Zn] ) do not show any obvious defects and exhibit a normal lifespan, though they are more sensitive to hyperoxic injury and mice lacking SOD2 (Superoxide dismutase 2, mitochondrial) die before birth. The above result enhances the importance of the presence of copper in improving life span and living health in human as well.

2. glutathione (GSH)
Glutathione (GSH), a polypeptide of glycine, cysteine, and glutamic acid that occurs widely in plant and animal tissues beside is best known for its role in enhancing the immune system in protect our body from bacteria and virus, it also is an antioxidant that helps to prevent damage caused by oxidation of cellular components such as free radicals and peroxides by converting to its oxidized form glutathione disulfide (GSSG), leading to generation of antioxidant enzymes, glutathione peroxidases and peroxiredoxins of which reduces the risk of oxidative DNA damage and subsequently the individual’s risk of cancer susceptibility.

Deficiency of Glutathione (GSH) causes hemolytic anemia, progressive degeneration of the spinal cord, disorders of the peripheral nervous system, diseases of the skeletal muscles, etc.

Intake with vitamin D increases glutathione levels in the brain and appears to be a catalyst for glutathione production.

3. Alpha lipoic acid
Alpha Lipoic Acid (ALA) is an organosulfur compound derived from octanoic acid. It has been used as over-the-counter nutritional supplements to treat a number of diseases and conditions. Alpha Lipoic Acid (ALA) not only is importance in preventing the symptoms of vitamin C and vitamin E deficiency, but also generates dihydrolipoic acid by reduction of antioxidant radicals.

Recent study showed that Alpha lipoic acid may have a therapeutic and anti-aging effects due to modulation of signal transduction and gene transcription, which improve the antioxidant status of the cell.

4. Manganese
Manganese is an essential trace nutrient in all forms of life. It is well known for its role in helping the body to maintain healthy skin and bone structure, but also acts as cofactors for a number of enzymes in higher organisms, where they are essential in detoxification of superoxide (O2−, with one unpaired electron) free radicals.

Although superoxide is biologically quite toxic and is deployed by the immune system to kill invading microorganisms by utilizing the enzyme NADPH oxidase. Any Mutations in the gene coding for the NADPH oxidase cause an immunodeficiency syndrome.

Superoxide may contribute to aging via the oxidative damage that it inflicts on cells. In larger amounts, manganese can be poisoning to neurological damage which is sometimes irreversible.

5. Selenium
Selenium , a trace mineral plays an important and indirect role as an antioxidant by fulfilling its function as a necessary constituent of glutathione peroxidase and in production of glutathione, that inhibits the damage caused by oxidation of free radical hydrogen peroxide, leading to aging effects.

5.1. Heart health
Since it works synergism with vitamin E, it promotes heart health. Study showed by increasing the levels of glutathion, selenium decreases the risk of LDL oxidation, thus lowering the risk of plaque building up on the arterial walls, blood pressure and heart diseases.

5.2. Immune system
Selenium enhances the immune function that fighting off the attack of AID virus by promoting the function of interleukin 2 and T-cells.

5.3. Cancer
Study showed that levels pf selenium in blood test is associated with high rate of cancer, including skin cancer.

6. Zinc
Zinc is an essential mineral that is naturally present in some foods. The ability of zinc ininhibiting oxidative processes has been recognized for many years. Chronic effects, zinc enhances the introduction of metallothioneins, which help to capture the superoxide and hydroxyl radicals due to cysteine residues, resulting in lessening the risk of oxidative stress.
Over acute effects, zinc may reduce the postischemic injury to a variety of tissues and organs by involving the antagonism of copper reactivity as a result from its antioxidant functions.

Cancers and Diseases
I. Cancer
Cancer is a class of diseases in which a group of abnormal growth of cells have become progressively worse as it intrudes upon and destroys adjacent tissues, sometimes spreads to other organs in the body via lymph or blood and results in death of the host.
A. Development of cancer
The development of cancer can be divided into three different stages
1. Initiation
Initiation is characteristic by irreversible mutation of DNA of a particular cell which does not undergo DNA repair (by enzymes) or undergoes faulty DNA repair, including gene deletion or insertion, gene slices, etc.

2. Promotion
In the promotion stage the mutation cells involve in uncontrolled growth and proliferation of mutated cells as it promotes the expression of its mutation gene and in its replication. In time these cells loose their normal abilities and just reproduce.

3. Progression
In the progression stage, the cancerous cells invade nearby tissues and migrate to other tissues via lymph or blood.

B. Antioxidants and cancer
Antioxidants are molecules capable of inhibiting the oxidation of other molecules to prevent damage by free radicals. Free radicals are unstable molecules due to lost of an electron. By maintaining the stable condition to itself, it causes oxidation to others that leads a chain of oxidation reaction, causing more free radicals being produced during the process, until they are brought to stop, causing alternation of DNA, resulting in possible development of cancer.
As we mentioned in the Antioxidants section above, there are many types of antioxidants
which search for free radicals and destroy them, thus preventing further damage to other cells, resulting in lessening the risk of the development of cancers.

C. Risk factors
1. Environment
Environmental exposures can promote the formation of free radicals, including sunshine, radiation, hormones, viruses, bacteria, air pollution, contaminated water and food, and chemical in the workplace, etc.

2. Lifestyle
Bad choices of lifestyle including cigarette smoking, excessive drinking, an unhealthful diet, lack of exercise, or sexual behavior can increase the risk of free radical causes of oxidation.
a. Diet
Although there is no specific guidance but studies show that consuming large quantities of red meat, preservative, and salt and less on vegetables and fruits increase the risk of stomach and colorectal cancers and calorie restriction has been shown to reduce cancer risk for several cancer types in experience in mice.
There are many healthy foods contained antioxidant which can help to reduce the risk of cancers, you can find over hundred of them in the link: healthy food index
b. Smoking
All types of tobacco smoking can cause a billion of oxyradicals within a single puff due to its carcinogens , free radicals and chemical, leading to a dozen types of cancer, including lung, mouth, bladder, colon, and kidney cancers. Chewing tobacco and snuff increase the risk of oral cancer, and second-hand smoke increases the risk of lung cancer.
c. Etc.

3. Heredity
Although it is only account 5% of diseases but in some cases, cancer is caused by an alternative gene that is being passed along from generation to generation, leading to increasing the risk of cancer, not the cancer itself.

4. Random gene change
Random gene change caused by exposing to a particular chemical which are accumulated in great amount as it passed along in cell division and replication can increase their risk for cancer.

5. Faulty Gene Repair Activities
Environmental exposures cause an unwanted molecule to bind to a gene, leading to the genes in faulty production of mutation of repair proteins in the gene repair activities that produce more alternation passing through from generation to generation. .

6. Medication
Some chemotherapy drugs used to treat cancer may increase the risk of second cancers later in life due to its suppression of the immune system in fighting against the forming of free radicals.

7. Etc.

D. Colorectal cancers
Colorectal cancers is the second most common of the visceral cancer and defined as cancers in the digestive system that involve part of the large intestine (colon) and the last several inches of the colon. It starts as a benign noncancerous adenomatous polyps. As of progress through its stages, it can be cancerous.
1. Symptoms
The symptoms are always seen in abnormal bowel habits as changing in the consistency of stool for more than a couple of weeks as well as bleeding and blood in the stool.

2. Risk factors
a. Heredity
Heredity although is not common, but you are high risk to have colorectal cancer if your parent or your sibling had it.
b. Overweight
Study showed that people who are 40% overweight above the average have a 35% high risk to develop colorectal cancer.
c. Aging
Colorectal cancer increases the risk with age of over 50. It may be caused by declining function of digestive system in digestive food properly that put pressure to the large intestine.
d. Gender
Would it be true that men are likely to develop colorectal cancer than women?
e. Diet
Diets high in saturated and trans fat have been found to cause colon cancer due to low amount of fiber which are important in assisting the digestive system in waste removal.
f. Etc.

3. Free radical and colorectal cancer
Study showed normally cells stop in the cell division or replication cycles if DNA is damaged but if P53 protein is defective in many different types of cancer as a result of cells do not stop dividing when DNA is damaged, leading to genomic instability. Enterococcus faecalis is commensal bacterium inhabiting the gastrointestinal tracts produced extracellular superoxide and hydrogen peroxide free radical in some people. As the free radicals react to molecules, it cause alternation of colonic DNA and if the production become chronic, it may leading to cancers.

4. Antioxidant and colorectal cancer
a. Vitamin E
Study found that using the combination of vitamin E and pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate can stop the colorectal cancer cells by bringing in a chemical arrest the cancer cell activity.
b. Beta carotene
Study showed that beta carotene plays an important role to protect against normal crypt foci, benign and malignant tumors of rat in high fat and variable fiber diet.
c. Salicylic acid
Salicylic acid in fruit and vegetable can inhibit the risk of colorectal cancers.
d. Grape seed extract
Researcher found that antioxidant, proanthocyanidins found in grape seeds significantly inhibits growth of colorectal tumors in both cell cultures and in mice.
e. Etc.

E. Breast cancer
After skin cancer, breast cancer is the most common cancer diagnosed in women in the United States. The rate of breast cancer has fallen in recent years, may be due to public awareness and research funding. It is originating from breast tissue of the inner lining of milk ducts or the lobules that supply the ducts with milk.
1. Symptoms
a. Lump or swelling in the armpit
b. Discharge from the nipple
c. Change in the size or shape of a breast
d. Changes to the skin over the breast
e. Inverted or retracted nipple
f. Crusting or scaling on the nipple
g. Pain in the nipple
h. Etc.

2. Risk factors
a. Heredity
Certain genes such as BRCA1 or BRCA2 have been identified to increase the risk of breast cancer.
b. Obesity
Obesity increases the risk in post menopause due to a lack of estrogen, progesterone and HER2 protein expression, while exercise reduce it. Women with over production of bad estrogen during the starting of menstrual cycle are susceptible to be a high risk of breast cancer.
c. Age
Risk of breast cancer for women have never given birth or had their first pregnancy after age 35.
d. Hormone
High levels of estradiol produced by a woman can increase the risk of breast cancer.
e. High fat diet
High fat diet can cause higher exposure to estrogen in fat tissue.
f. Etc.

3. Free radicals and breast cancer
Researcher found that he spread of breast cancer may be caused by damage of the suppression gene or activation of encogenes by hydroxyl free radicals as a result of metabolism from hydro peroxide, probably a by product of the cycling estrogen.

4. Antioxidants and breast cancer
a. Lycopene
Lycopene found abundant in cooked tomatoes as a powerful antioxidants counterbalances the detrimental oxygen free radicals before they can damage cellular structures in the breast as well as other types of cancer.

b. Vitamin A
Vitamin A plays an important role as an antioxidant as it scavenges free radicals by preventing them to become cancerous. including breast tissues but vitamin A have had mixed results in treating cancer according to W. Byers, Ph.D., a professor of oncology and cell biology at Georgetown's Lombardi Comprehensive Cancer Center as vitamin A may cause some breast cancer cells to form blood vessels brings up the rather disturbing notion that treatment with these drugs may actually stimulate tumor growth,"

c. Vitamin C
As an antioxidant and water soluble vitamin, vitamin C can be easily carry in blood and operate in much of the part of body. By restoring vitamin E, vitamin A and E helps to fight against forming of free radicals by balancing the levels of oxidants and antioxidants thus preventing DNA damage that lead to cancer development.

d. Vitamin E
It beside is important in protecting muscle weakness, repair damage tissues, lower blood pressure and inducing blood clotting in healing wound, etc, it also is one of powerful antioxidant, by moving into the fatty medium to prevent lipid peroxidation, resulting in lessening the risk of chain reactions by curtailing them before they can starts.

f. Coenzyme Q10
Coenzyme Q10 enhances energy production by promoting the process of the production of ATP then serving as fuel for the cells and acts an antioxidant to prevent the elevation of lipid peroxide concentration in the tissues, thus reducing the risk of breast cancer and other types of cancers.

g. Etc.

F. Prostate cancer
Prostate cancer is a form of cancer that develops in the prostate, a gland in the male reproductive system. Prostate cancer usually grows slowly and can often be cured or managed successfully, however in the aggressive case, The cancer cells can spread from the prostate to other parts of the body, particularly the bones and lymph nodes
1. Symptoms
a. Painful or burning sensation in urination
b. Inability to urinate or difficulty in starting urine stream
c. Inability to empty bladder
d. Blood in urine
e. Continual pain in the lower back, pelvis or upper thighs
f. Frequent, urgent need to urinate
g. Erectile dysfunction
h. Problems during sexual intercourse
i. Etc

2. Risk factros
a. Age.
Risk of prostate cancer increases with age. it may be due to wear and tear or inability of the immune function in fighting against oxidation of the prostate cells.
b. Heredity
Genetic alternation genes may contribute to prostate cancer risk, as suggested by associations with race, family, and specific gene variants. Prostate cancer occurs about 60% more often in African American men than in white American.
c. Diet
Diet high in saturated and trans fat may be a contributing factor of prostate cancer, as the disease is much more common in countries where meat and dairy products are dietary staples.
d. Viral
In 2006, researchers found a Xenotropic MuLV-related virus or XMRV, with human prostate tumors.
e. Sexual transmitting diseases
Infection caused by infection with the sexually transmitted infections chlamydia, gonorrhea, or syphilis seems to increase risk of prostate cancer.
f. Etc.

2. Free radical and prostate cancer
Prostate cancer involves a malignant tumor growth within the prostate gland. Recent study showed that chronic inflammation of the prostate gland and high free radical load contribute to DNA damage and genomic instability, leading to cancerous or benign tumors, due to oxidative stress provoked by toxins, dietary fat consumption, or high level of androgens, etc.. Cancerous tumours can grow through your prostate and spread to other parts of your body through the bloodstream or the lymph system, where they may grow and form secondary tumours.

3. Antioxidants and prostate cancer
a. Lycopene
In a randomized study, 15 of 26 men scheduled for radical prostatectomy for organ confined malignancy were given lycopene supplements, 15 mg twice a day for over the 3 weeks were found to have smaller volume tumors and surgical margins were less likely to be positive.
b. The manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD)
The manganese superoxide dismutase MnSOD is the cells primary defense against free radical mediated damage by encoding an antioxidant enzyme (SOD2).
c. Vitamin C
Dr. J. Leuchaeur, who successfully works with prostate cancer patients, recommends as much as 60 grams (60,000mgs) per day for prostate cancer along with a Primitive Diet. This has been used as the entire prostate treatment as vitamin C helped to prevent the free radical damage that is associated with cancer.
d. Vitamin E
Vitamin E beside stops the production of ROS formed when fat undergoes oxidation, it also decreases incidence of prostate cancer.
e. Carotene
By strengthening growth regulatory signsls between cells and preventing damage prostate cells from reproducing and forming tumors.
f. Selenium and vitamin E
The Selenium and Vitamin E Cancer Prevention Trial (SELECT) is taking place in the United States, Puerto Rico, and Canada. SELECT is trying to find out if taking selenium and/or vitamin E supplements can prevent prostate cancer in men age 50 or older. by protecting cells from damage caused by unstable molecules.
g. Etc.

G. lung cancer
Lung cancer is a disease caused by uncontrolled cell growth in tissues of the lung. This growth may lead to spreading of a disease from one part to another non-adjacent part of the body and responsible over 1 million deaths worldwide annually.

1. Symptoms
a. A cough that gets worse or doesn’t go await.
b. Constantly cough in a smoker or a former smoker should raise concern for lung cancer.
c. Breathing problems
d. Wheezing or hoarseness due to blockage or inflammation in the lungs
e. Constant chest pain, especially when you cough
f. Coughing up blood occurs in a significant number of people having lung cancer
g. Frequent chest infections, such as pneumonia, or an infection that doesn’t go away
h. Fatigue (feeling very tired all the time)
j. Unexplained weight loss
k. Etc.

2. Risk factors
a. Smoking
Cigarette contains over 60 difference chemicals which can cause cancers. Its nicotine appears to depress the immune response to malignant growths in exposed tissue. Second hand smoke can also be a cause of lung cancer in nonsmokers. Study showed that the risk of lung cancer also rise with the numbers of cigarette smoke daily.

b. Virus
Some virus such as human papillomavirus (by infecting in the stratified epithelium of the skin or mucous membranes),JC virus (causing immunodeficiency), simian virus (SV40) (a DNA virus that has the potential to cause tumors), BK virus (may cause immunocompromised and the immunosuppressed), and human cytomegalovirus(can be life-threatening for the immunocompromised) can cause lung cancer by affecting the cell cycle and inhibit apoptosis, that allow uncontrolled cell division.

c. Concentration of particles
Only 1% increase of concentration of particles increases the risk of developing a lung cancer by 14%.

d. Heredity
Some people have preposition to the certain diseases, including lung cancer.

e. Occupation
Occupation expose yourself in heavy metals, radiation, asbestos, pollutant environment can increase the risk of lung cancer.

f. Etc.

3. Free radical and lung cancer
As we mentioned in previous, one puff of cigarette cause countless numbers of free radicals and chain of uncontrolled free radical generation until it is brought to stop. Study found that smoking
a. Activates phagocytes, leading to additional oxidated stress,
b. Increases production of the aberrant 8-hydroxydioxy-guanine, leading to basal DNA damage to circulating lymphocypes and
c. Promotes tumor cell invasion and metastasis, due to other oxidants in the cigarette.

4. Antioxidant and lung cancer
Study from Finland is reported in the American Journal of Epidemiology in September 2002 found
a. Fruit and vegetable
A high fruit and vegetable intake reduced risk of lung cancer by 27 percent
b. Carotene and Lycopene
Eating foods contain high amount of carotene and lycopene decrease the risk of lung cancer by 28%.
c. Vitamin A
Higher blood levels of vitamin A reduced risk by 27 percent
Other studies found
d. Vitamin C
Smokers consumed less than 90mg of vitamin C are 1.5 time more likely to develop lung cancer compare to those taking 140 mg per day.
e. Vitamin C and E
Fruits and vegetable contains high amount of vitamin C and E reduce the risk of lung cancer development.

f. Etc.

Diseases
II. Cardiovascular disease or hear diseases are the class of diseases that involve disorder of the heart or blood vessels (arteries and veins),including coronary heart disease (heart attacks), cerebrovascular disease (stroke), raised blood pressure (hypertension), peripheral artery disease, rheumatic heart disease, congenital heart disease and heart failure. Cardiovascular disease kills more than 2,000 Americans everyday and approximately 60 million Americans have heart disease.

A. Atherosclerosis
Atherosclerosis is defined as a condition in which fatty material accumulated along the walls of arteries, leading to thickening or hardening of arterial walls result in blockage eventual of the arteries
1. Symptoms
a. Leg cramps during walking
Leg cramps during exercise might be caused by dehydration. It is important to drink a lot of fluid during exercise. Leg cramps occur when the muscle suddenly and forcefully contracts. The most common muscles to contract in this manner are muscles that cross two joints. Leg cramps during walking might be an indication of heart disease caused by arteries in your leg being clogged up by cholesterol in result of not enough oxygen being delivered to the cells in your leg. If this symptom persists, please consult with your doctor.

b. Chest pain
Chest pain is caused by blood vessels in the heart temporarily being blocked up. It is also caused by inadequate oxygen supply to the heart muscle or coronary . The persistence of chest pain would be an early indication of heart diseases.

c. Shortness of breath
Shortness of breath (dyspnea) is the major symptom of the left ventricular insufficiency. People with shortness of breath are four times more likely to die from a heart disease related cause than individuals without any symptoms.

d. Headaches
People see sparkling zigzag lines or loss of vision before a migraine attack may be at particular risk of future cardiovascular problems. Generally headaches do not cause heart diseases but a sudden, explosive onset of great pain might be.

f. Dizziness
Dizziness can have many causes including low blood count, low iron in the blood stream and other blood disorders, dehydration, and viral illnesses. Since there are many different conditions that can produce these symptoms, anybody experiencing episodes of severe headaches or dizziness ought to be checked by your doctor.

g. Palpitations
Palpitations is an extremely common symptom of heart disease. Palpitations are skips in the heart beats and irregular heart beats.

h. Loss of consciousness
It is a common symptom, most people pass out at least once in their lives. However, sometimes loss of consciousness indicates a dangerous or even life-threatening condition such as heart disease so when loss of consciousness occurs it is important to figure out the cause.

g. Etc.

2. Risk factors
a. Diabetes
b. Dyslipoproteinemia (unhealthy patterns of serum proteins carrying fats & cholesterol)
c. High serum concentration of low-density lipoprotein (LDL)
d. Low serum concentration of functioning high density lipoprotein (HDL)
e. An LDL:HDL ratio greater than 3:1
f. Tobacco smoking, increases risk by 200% after several pack years
g. Hypertension
h. Elevated serum C-reactive protein concentrations
i. Vitamin B6 deficiency
j. Heredity
k. Obesity
l. Age
m. Etc.

3. Free radicals and Atherosclerosis
Atherosclerosis develops as a result of oxidation of low-density lipoprotein molecules (LDL) or bad cholesterol by free radicals, including reactive oxygen species (ROS). As the oxidated LDL move in the blood stream and comes to contact and damage the arterial wall, the immune immune system by sending specialized white blood cells (macrophages and T-lymphocytes) to absorb the oxidized-LDL forming specialized foam cells. If the white blood cells can not process the oxidized-LDL, they ultimately grow then rupture thus depositing a greater amount of oxidized cholesterol into the artery wall that triggers more white blood cells, continuing the cycle. If the artery becomes inflamed, it causes cholesterol plaque buildup over the affected area, leading to narrowing of the artery that reduces the blood flow and increases blood pressure.

4. Antioxidants and Atherosclerosis
a. Bioflavonoids or vitamin P
Discovered by Szent-Gyorgyi and his colleagues back in the 1930`s. In Laboratory tests, B
bioflavonoids help to reduce the fragility and “permeability” in capillaries and prevent the clotting up of arterial as a result of oxidation.

b. Vitamins C and E, beta-carotene
Recent research findings have suggested that antioxidants such as vitamin C, E and beta carotene play an important role in the prevention of atherosclerosis. Data from animal studies showed they are able to prevent oxidative modification of low density lipoproteins (LDL).

c. Alpha-tocopherol
Alpha-tocopherol, a antioxidant found abundant in vitamin E, helps to decrease lipid peroxidation and platelet aggregation, adhesion and inflammatory. Epidemiological studies suggest that low levels of antioxidants are associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease.

d. Vitamin C and E
Studies showed in take of 500mg of vitamin C and 400 IU of vitamin E helps to retard the progression of coronary atherosclersis.

e. Chlorophyl
Antioxidant chorophyll in the green algae shows to inhibit the chemical cadmium of smoking, by preventing from oxidation that cause building up of plaque along the walls of arteries.

f. Etc.

B. Ischemic
Ischemia is defined as a condition of restriction or interruption of blood supply to the body organs, as a result of plague builds up in the arteries, causing damage or dysfunction of the arterial walls. 1. Symptoms
a. Irregular or rapid pulse
b. Abnormal heart palpitations
c. Cough
d. Reduced or excessive urine output
e. Difficulty breathing when you lay down
f. Leg swelling and weight gain from heart failure
g. Weakness ,fatigue and faintness
h. Chest pain.
i. Etc.

2. Risk factors
a. Tobacco
Cigarette contains high levels of cadmium, inhaling the chemical during smoking or second hand smoke can cause building up of plaque along to the arterial walls as a result of oxidation.
b. Obesity
Obesity increases the risk of ischemia as it is normally associated with high levels of cholesterol, high blood pressure.

c. Heredity
A history of heart attack or coronary artery disease of a family, can increase the risk of ischemia to the members.

d. Hypertension
Hypertension can be inherited or bad diet with a lot of salts and aging. the disease can damage arteries that feed your heart by accelerating atherosclerosis.

e. High levels of cholesterol and triglyceride
High levels of bad cholesterols and triglyceride partial block the blood flow in the vessels, it not only increases the risk of high blood pressure but also the risk of ischemia if the blood circulation disimish.

f. Diabetes
Diabetes cause high levels of blood sugar in the blood stream which can cause the thinkening of the blood thus, reducing the blood flow to the body and increase the risk of blood being blocked.

g. Etc.

3. Free radicals and ischemia
Researcher found that free radicals generated during oxidated stress through a series of interacting pathways in cardiac myocytes and endothelial cells and triggers subsequent leukocyte chemotaxis and inflammation is greatly increased in the post-ischemic heart and serves as a critical central mechanism of post-ischemic injury.
Nitric oxide (NO), one of the antioxidant and peroxynitrite can inhibit pathways of oxygen radical generation, and, in turn, oxidants can inhibit NO synthesis from NOS.

4. Antioxidants and ischemia
a. Nitric oxide (NO)
Nitric oxide (NO), one of the antioxidant and peroxynitrite can inhibit pathways of oxygen radical generation, and, in turn, oxidants can inhibit NO synthesis from NOS.

b. glutathione and vitamin E
Reduced form of glutathione may act as a first line of defense against oxidative stress during ischemia–reperfusion while vitamin E may act later on during severe oxidative stress by rendering resistance to the heart against the ischemic–reperfusion injury

c. 2-dithiole-3-thione (D3T)
Researcher found that in rat cardiac H9c2 cells, D3T and time-dependent induction of a number of cellular antioxidants and phase 2 enzymes, including catalase, reduced glutathione (GSH), GSH peroxidase, glutathione reductase (GR), GSH S-transferase (GST), and NADH:quinone oxidoreduc- tase-1 (NQO1) help to protect against H9c2 cell injury caused by various oxidants and simulated ischemia-reperfusion. D3T pretreatment also resulted in decreased intracellular accumulation of reactive oxygen in H9c2 cells after exposure to the oxidants as well as simulated ischemia-reperfusion.

d. Selenium
Deficiency of of a co-enzyme selenium, which is required in maintaining the glutathione redox cycle, also promote more susceptible to oxidative injure.

e. Etc.
III. Diabetes
Diabetes is defined as a group of metabolic diseases in which a person has high blood sugar, either because the body does not produce enough insulin, or because cells do not respond to the insulin that is produced.
1. Type I and Type II
a. Type I diabetes:
Type I diabetes is defined as a condition of a results from the body's failure to produce insulin, and presently requires the person to inject insulin.

b. Type 2 diabetes:
Type II diabetes is defined as a condition in which cells fail to use insulin properly, sometimes combined with an absolute insulin deficiency.

2. Types of type II diabetes
There are 3 different kinds of type II diabetes
1. If some of the cells in the pancreas die off, it can't produce enough insulin to regulate sugar in the blood stream, then we have type II diabetes that are caused by deficiency of insulin.
Today experts still don't know the causes of how pancreas cells die off, but they suspect that excessive alcohol drinking may be the factor. According to surveys, 70% of patients with type II insulin deficiency diabetes were heavy alcohol users.

2.If the pancreas produces enough insulin, but the receptor sites are clogged up by fat and cholesterol, causing insulin not being pick up at the cell from receptor sites, we have type II insulin sufficient diabetes.
Most cases of type II insulin sufficient diabetes are caused by uncontrolled diet that are high in


By Kyle J. Norton Health article writer and researcher
All rights reserved. Any reproducing of this article must have the author name and all the links intact.

Author: Health article writer and researcher

Biography: I have been studying natural remedies for disease prevention for over 20 years and working as a financial consultant since 1990. Health Researcher and Article Writer. Master in Mathematics and BA in World Literature and Literary criticism

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Endometriosis and Chinese Herbs
Endometriosis and Cinnamon
Endometriosis and Corydalis Ambigua
Endometriosis and Cramp Bark
Endometriosis and Curcuma Longa (Turmeric)
Endometriosis and Dark Green Leaves
Endometriosis and Diet
Endometriosis and Diet ( Garlic )
Endometriosis and Dong Quai
Endometriosis and Emmenagogues
Endometriosis and Essential Oils
Endometriosis and Exercise
Endometriosis and Fennel Seed
Endometriosis and Flower Remedies---Agrimony
Endometriosis and Folic Acids
Endometriosis and Foods
Endometriosis and Green Pepper
Endometriosis and Helonias
Endometriosis and Herbs
Endometriosis and Homeopathy
Endometriosis and Hydrotherapy
Endometriosis and Irregular Menstruation
Endometriosis and Lactuca Virosa
Endometriosis and Licorice
Endometriosis and Matricaria Recutita (Chamomile)
Endometriosis and Minerals
Endometriosis and Naturopathy
Endometriosis and Nut-Grass Rhizome
Endometriosis and Olive Oil
Endometriosis and Peony
Endometriosis and Piscidia Erythrina
Endometriosis and Probiotics
Endometriosis and Raspberry Leaf
Endometriosis and Rehmannia (Chinese foxglove)
Endometriosis and Rhamnus Purshiana (Bearberry)
Endometriosis and Silybum Marianum (Milk Thistle)
Endometriosis and Szechuan Lovage Root (Ligusticum Wallichii)
Endometriosis and Tanacetum Parthenium (Feverfew)
Endometriosis and Taraxacum Officinale ( Dandelion)
Endometriosis and The Causes of Infertility
Endometriosis and the Digestive System
Endometriosis and Valeriana Officinalis (Valerian)
Endometriosis and Verbena Officinalis (Verbena)
Endometriosis and Vitamin A
Endometriosis and Vitamin B1
Endometriosis and Vitamin B2
Endometriosis and Vitamin B3
Endometriosis and Vitamin B5
Endometriosis And Vitamins
Endometriosis and What to Avoid
Endometriosis and Wild Yam
Endometriosis and Zingiber Officinale (Ginger)
Endometriosis Part I--- Types of Traditional Treatments
Endometriosis Part III - Types Of Conventional Treatments, Side Effects and Risks
Endometriosis Part XVI - Types of Essential Oil Help To Treat Endometriosis
Endometriosis, Endometriosis and Biotin.oral contraceptive drug, Endometriosis, endometriosis treatment
Fertility Diet - The Benefits Of Saturated Fat?
Fertility Diet - The Negative Effects Of Saturated Fat?
Fertility Diet - Types of Fat Effect Fertility and Infertility
Fertility Diet - What Is Macro-Nutrients
Fertility Diet - What Is Micro-Nutrients
Fertility Diet - What is Mono-unsaturated Fat?
Fertility Diet - What is Poly-unsaturated Fats?
Fertility Diet - What IsTrans Fat?
Gestational Carrier After Endometrisl Hysterectomy
GnRH and Vitamins
GrNH and Minerals
Heart disease affecting the heart chambers
Heart diseases Affecting Coronary Arteries and Coronary Veins
Heart Diseases Affecting Heart Lining
Heart Diseases Affecting Heart Muscles
Heart diseases Affecting Heart Valves
Hepatitis - Causes, Symptoms, Types, Prevention and Treatment
Hormonal Symptoms Of Endometriosis
Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT) After Endometriosis Hysterectomy?
Hospital Admission For Endometrial Hysterectomy
How Conventional Medications Treat Endometriosis
How Endometriosis Affects Women's Life
How Endometriosis Effects the Reproductive System
How Endometriosis Elevate Abdominal and Pelvic Pains
How Environmental Toxins Cause Endometriosis
How to prevent Cold and Flu With Foods
How To Choose the Best Male Fertility Self Help Program
How to Find The Best Endometriosis Self Help Program
How To Find The Best Female Fertility Self Help Program
How to Find Your Doctor Before Hysterectomy
How to Improve and Treat Your Health With Binaural Frequency Harmonics
How to Improve Sexual Activity After Endometrial Hysterectomy
How to Prevent and Treat Alzheimer's Disease with Foods
How to Prevent and Treat Alzheimer's with Common Sense Approaches
How to Prevent and Treat Alzheimer's with Vitamins and Minerals
How to Prevent and Treat of Alzheimer's Disease with Conventional Approach
How to Prevent Stroke with Natural Supplements
How Vitamin C Effects Women with Endometriosis
How Xenoestrogen Causes Endometriosis
In the Operation Room Before Surgery
Infertility and Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome In Traditional Chinese Medicne Perspective
Infertility and Polyscystic Ovarian Syndrome In Weight Loss Perspective
Infertility and Polyscystic Ovarian Syndrome PCO's In Weight Loss Perspective
Is Estrogen Replacement Therapy Necessary After Endometrial Hysterectomy?
List of Foods For Tonifying Kidney Qi In TCM Perspestive
List of Foods For Tonifying Kidney Yin (Kidney Yin Deficiency) In TCM Perspestive
List of Foods Part II - For Tonifying Kidney Yin In TCM Perspestive
Lists Of Foods For Healthy Living and Longevity Foods In Traditional Chinese Medicine Perspective
Lyme Disease
Menopause State After Endometrial Hysterectomy ?
Menstrual Cycle modification-Symptoms, Causes &Treatments Of Luteal Phrase Defect Caused By Excess Heat In The Yang Phrase Of Menstrual Cycle
Menstrual Cycle modification-Symptoms, Causes &Treatments Of Blood Deficiency In The Menstruation Phrase of Menstrual Cycle
Menstrual Cycle modification-Symptoms, Causes &Treatments Of Blood Stasis In The Menstruation Phrase of Menstrual Cycle
Menstrual Cycle modification-Symptoms, Causes &Treatments Of Liver Qi Stagantion in The Menstruation Phrase of Menstrual Cycle
Menstrual Cycle modification-Symptoms, Causes &Treatments Of Low BBT Temprature Caused By Yang Deficiency in The Yang Phrase
Menstrual Cycle modification-Symptoms, Causes &Treatments Of Qi Deficiency In The Menstruation Phrase of Menstrual Cycle
Menstrual Cycle modification-Symptoms, Causes &Treatments Of Shortened Luteal Phrase Caused By Liver Qi Stagnation in The Yang Phrase Of Menstrual Cy
Menstrual Cycle modification-Symptoms, Causes &Treatments Of Shortened Luteal Phrase Caused By Kidney Yin Deficiency in The Yang Phrase
Menstrual Cycle modification-Symptoms, Causes &Treatments Of Spleen Qi Deficiency In The Menstruation Phrase of Menstrual Cycle
Menstrual Cycle modification-Symptoms, Causes &Treatments Of Uterine Lining Out Of Phrase Caused By Blood Stagnation in The Yang Phrase
Menstruation Disorder - Amenorrhea - Types of Food Help to Prevent &Treat Amenorrhea
Menstruation Disorder - Amenorrhea - Types of Herbs Help to Prevent &Treat Amenorrhea
Menstruation Disorder - Amenorrhea - Types of Nutritional Supplements Help to Prevent &Treat Amenorrhea
Menstruation Disorder - Dysmenorrhea - Causes the Imbalance of Liver in a Tcm Perspective
Menstruation Disorder - Menorrhagia - How Nutritional Supplements Help to Treat Menorrhagia
Menstruation Disorder - Menorrhagia - Definition, Causes and Symptoms
Menstruation Disorder - Menorrhagia - How to Treat Menorrhagia With Chinese Herbs
Menstruation Disorder - Menorrhagia - How to Treat Menorrhagia with Foods
Menstruation Disorders - Amenorrhea - Causes and Symptoms of Secondary Amenorrhea
Menstruation Disorders - Amenorrhea - Symptoms and Causes of Primary Amenorrhea
Menstruation Disorders - Amenorrhea - Types Of Kidney Deficiency Causes of Amenorrhea In TCM Perspective
Menstruation Disorders - Dysmenorrhea - Acupressure in Tcm Perspective
Menstruation Disorders - Dysmenorrhea - Blood Deficiency Tonic Herbs in a TCM Perspective
Menstruation Disorders - Dysmenorrhea - Causes of Blood and Qi Stagnation in TCM Perspective
Menstruation Disorders - Dysmenorrhea - Causes of Blood Deficiency in TCM Perspective
Menstruation Disorders - Dysmenorrhea - Causes of Damp Heat in TCM Perspective
Menstruation Disorders - Dysmenorrhea - Causes of Damp Wind Pattern in TCM Perspective
Menstruation Disorders - Dysmenorrhea - Causes of Dampness in TCM Perspective
Menstruation Disorders - Dysmenorrhea - Causes of Deficiency of Qi and Blood in TCM Perspective
Menstruation Disorders - Dysmenorrhea - Causes of Heat Pattern in TCM Perspective
Menstruation Disorders - Dysmenorrhea - Causes of Kidney Yang Deficiency in TCM Perspective
Menstruation Disorders - Dysmenorrhea - Causes of Liver and Kidney Deficiency in TCM Perspective
Menstruation Disorders - Dysmenorrhea - Damp Heat's Tonic Herbs in TCM Perspective
Menstruation Disorders - Dysmenorrhea - Deficiency of Qi and Blood's Tonic Herbs in TCM Perspective
Menstruation Disorders - Dysmenorrhea - Herbs Used to Treat Dampness in a TCM Perspective
Menstruation Disorders - Dysmenorrhea - Kidney Yang Deficiency's Tonic Herbs in TCM Perspective
Menstruation Disorders - Dysmenorrhea - Ocupunture in TCM Perspective
Menstruation Disorders - Dysmenorrhea - Symptoms of Blood Deficiency in TCM Perspective
Menstruation Disorders - Dysmenorrhea - Symptoms of Damp Heat in TCM Perspective
Menstruation Disorders - Dysmenorrhea - Symptoms of Damp Wind Pattern in a TCM Perspective
Menstruation Disorders - Dysmenorrhea - Symptoms of Dampness In TCM Perspective
Menstruation Disorders - Dysmenorrhea - Symptoms of Deficiency of Qi and Blood in TCM Perspective
Menstruation Disorders - Dysmenorrhea - Symptoms of Imbalance of Liver in TCM Perspective
Menstruation Disorders - Dysmenorrhea - Symptoms of Kidney and Liver Deficiency in TCM Perspective
Menstruation Disorders - Dysmenorrhea - Symptoms of Kidney Yang Deficiency in a TCM Perspective
Menstruation Disorders - Dysmenorrhea in TCM Perspective
Menstruation Disorders - Dysmenorrhrea - Symptoms of Blood and Qi Stagnation in TCM Perspective
Menstruation Disorders - Irregular Period Caused by Excess Cold In TCM Perspective
Menstruation Disorders - Irregular Period Caused by Imbalance of Kidney In TCM Perspective
Menstruation Disorders - Irregular Period Caused By Imbalance of Liver In TCM Perspective
Menstruation Disorders - Types of Irregular Menstruation In TCM Perspective
Menstruation Disorders -- Symptoms, Causes and Treatments Of Amenorrhea Caused By Kidney Yin Deficiency In TCM Perspective
Menstruation Disorders -- Symptoms, Causes and Treatments Of Amenorrhea Caused By Bilateral Kidney Yin & Yang Deficiency In TCM Perspective
Menstruation Disorders -- Symptoms, Causes and Treatments Of Amenorrhea Caused By Kidney Jing (Essnece) Deficiency In TCM Perspective
Menstruation Disorders -- Symptoms, Causes and Treatments Of Amenorrhea Caused By Kidney Qi Deficiency In TCM Perspective
Menstruation Disorders -Causes of Irregular Menstruation In TCM Perspective
Menstruation Disorders -Irregular Period Causes by Spleen Qi Deficinecy In TCM Perspective
Menstruation Disorders -Irregular Period Irregular Period Causes by Excess Heat In TCM Perspective
Most common Types of Cancer - Bladder Cancer
Most common Types of Cancer - Bladder Cancer In Traditional Chinese Perspective
Most common Types of Cancer - What is Cancer
Options of Fertility After Endometrial Hysterectomy
Options To Have Children After Endometrial Hysterectomy - Surrogacy
Oral Contraceptive Pills and Circulatory System
Oral Contraceptive Combination Pills and Minerals
Oral Contraceptive Pills and Vitamins
Other Choices Besides Estrogen Replacement Therapy
Ovarian Cysts - Sumptoms, Causes and Treatments In Traditional Chinese Medicine Perspective
Ovarian Cysts In Conventional Medicine Perspective
Overcome Infertility --What is Endometrial biopsy?
Overcome Infertility --What is Hysteroscopy ?
Overcome Male Infertility --What Is Hormone Evaluation ?
Overcome Female Infertility -Ovulatory Dysfunction Agent-Definition, Effect and Side Effects of Conventional Medication
Overcome Female Infertility - Types of Medication of Conventional Medication in Treating Infertility
Overcome Female Infertility -- Conventional Medication Helps to Treat Endometriosis
Overcome Female Infertility -- How Conventional Surgery helps to Treat Asherman's syndrome
Overcome Female Infertility -- How Conventional Surgery Helps to Treat Fibroids
Overcome Female Infertility -- How to Treat Infertility With Black Cohosh ( cimicifuga racemosa )
Overcome Female Infertility -- Humam Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG): Definition, Effects, Side Effects and Risks
Overcome Female Infertility -- Human menopause gonadotrophins (HMG): Definition, Effects, Side Effects and Risks
Overcome Female Infertility -- Progesterone Supplement:s Definition, Effects, Side Effects and Risk
Overcome Female Infertility -- Prolaction Medicine: Definition, Effects, Side Effects and Risk
Overcome Female Infertility -- Types of Structure Problem In Conventional Treatment
Overcome Female Infertility --Diagnosis From Conventional Perspective
Overcome Female Infertility --Follicle-stimulating hormone ( FSH): Definition, Effects, Side Effects and Risks
Overcome Female Infertility --Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH): Definition, Effects, Side Effects and Risks
Overcome Female Infertility --How to Treat Infertility With Angelica Root (Dang Qui)
Overcome Female Infertility --How to Treat Infertility With Bupleurum
Overcome Female Infertility --How to Treat Infertility With Chaste tree berry ( vitex agnus-castus)
Overcome Female Infertility --How to Treat Infertility With Cinnamon
Overcome Female Infertility --How to Treat Infertility With Herbs Red clover (trifolium pratense)
Overcome Female Infertility --How to Treat Infertility With Poria
Overcome Female Infertility --How to Treat Infertility With White Peony
Overcome Female Infertility --What is Blood Deficiency In Traditional Chinese Medicine
Overcome Female Infertility --What is Cervical Mucus test ?
Overcome Female Infertility --What is Liver Blood Stagnation InTraditional Chinese Medicine
Overcome Female Infertilty --What is Antisperm antibody test?
Overcome Female Infertilty --What is Ovulation test ?
Overcome Female Infertilty --What is Progesterone test?
Overcome Female Infertilty --What is Radioimmunoassays (RIAs) ?
Overcome Female Infertilty --What is Tubal patency test ?
Overcome Female Infertilty --What is Urinaryluteinizing hormone ( LH) test ?
OverCome Fertility - Food Classsification in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) Perspective
Overcome Infertility - Immunity Causes of Infertility
Overcome Infertility - What to Avoid if You Want To Get Pregnant
Overcome Infertility --Cervical Causes of Infertility
Overcome Infertility -Endometrial Lining Causes of Infertility
Overcome Infertility -Lifestyle Causes of Infertility
Overcome Infertility -Psycological Causes of Infertility
Overcome Infertility -What Exhibits Birth Defects to Cause Infertility
Overcome Infertility -What Exhibits Erectile Dysfunction To Cause Infertility
Overcome Infertility -What is Spleen function In traditional Chinese medicine in treating infertility
Overcome Infertility - -Ejaculation Causes of Infertility
Overcome Infertility - Causes of High Follicle-Stimulating Hormone in TCM Perspective
Overcome Infertility - Causes of Irregular Menstruation in TCM Perspective
Overcome Infertility - Fertility and Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome In Conventional Medicine Perspective
Overcome Infertility - How to Nourish The Menstruation Phrase of Menstrual Cycle
Overcome Infertility - How to Treat High Levels of Fsh Caused by Kidney Yang Deficiency in Tcm
Overcome Infertility - How to Treat High Levels of Fsh Caused by Liver Blood Stagnation in Tcm
Overcome Infertility - How to Treat High Levels of Fsh Caused by Liver Qi Stagnation in Tcm
Overcome Infertility - How to Treat Kidney's Yin Deficiency Cause of High FSH in TCM Perspective
Overcome Infertility - Menstrual Cycle Modification - Causes Of Proloned Yin Phrase In TCM Perspective
Overcome Infertility - Menstrual Cycle Modification - How to Treat Excess - Heat Cause of Shortened Yin Phrase
Overcome Infertility - Menstrual Cycle Modification - How to Treat Kidney Yin Deficiency in The Yin Phrase
Overcome Infertility - Menstrual Cycle Modification - Symptoms, Causes & Treatments Of Liver Qi Stagnation Causes in Ovulation Phrase
Overcome Infertility - Menstrual Cycle modification - Symptoms, Causes &Treatments Of Liver Qi Stagnation Causes in Ovulation Phrase of Menstrual Cyc
Overcome Infertility - Menstrual Cycle Modification - Symptoms, Causes and Treatment Of Kidney Yang Deficiency in Yin Phrase
Overcome Infertility - Menstrual Cycle Modification - Symptoms, Causes and Treatments Of Spleen Qi Deficiency Cause of Prolonged Yin Phrase
Overcome Infertility - Menstrual Cycle Modification -Symptoms, Causes & Treatments Of Kidney Yin Deficiency Cause of High BBT In The Yin Phrase
Overcome Infertility - Menstrual Cycle Modification -Symptoms, Causes & Treatments Of Kidney Yang Deficiency Cause Of Low BBT in Yin Phrase
Overcome Infertility - Menstrual Cycle modification-Symptoms, Causes &Treatments Of Liver Qi Stagantion in The Menstruation Phrase of Menstrual Cycle
Overcome Infertility - Ovarian Failure Syndrome in Traditional Chinese Medicine Perspectives
Overcome Infertility - Pelvic Inflammation Disease (PID) In Conventional Medicine Perspective
Overcome Infertility - Pelvic Inflammation Disease (PID) In Conventional Medicine Perspective
Overcome Infertility - Pelvic Inflammation Disease (PID) In Traditional Chinese Medicine Perspective
Overcome Infertility - Period Modification - What is a Normal Menstrual Cycle? In TCM Perspective
Overcome Infertility - Types and Risks of Conventional Surgery In Treating Infertility
Overcome Infertility - Types of Irregular Menstruation In TCM Perspective
Overcome Infertility - Types of Irregular Period
Overcome Infertility -- Treating Anti-sperm Antibody In Conventional Perspective
Overcome Infertility -- Types of Artificial Inseminations In Conventional Medication
Overcome Infertility -- What is Immune Dysfunction in a Conventional Perspective ?
Overcome Infertility --Assisted Hatching In Conventional Medication
Overcome Infertility --Causes and Symptoms of Deficiency of kidney yang In traditional Chinese Medicine
Overcome Infertility --Classical 5 Element Theories In Traditional Chinese Medicine
Overcome Infertility --Cryopreservation InConventional Medication
Overcome Infertility --Fertility Self Diagnosis Methods
Overcome Infertility --How Conventional Medication Helps To Treat Congenital Uterine Abnormalities
Overcome Infertility --How Folic Acid Effects Fertility
Overcome Infertility --How to Treat female Infertility With Herbs Licorice (glycyrrhira glabra)
Overcome Infertility --How to Treat Female Infertility With Herbs Red Raspberry ( rubus ideaus))
Overcome Infertility --How to Treat Infertility With Chinese Herbs
Overcome Infertility --How to Treat Infertility With Chinese Herbs--Astragalus
Overcome Infertility --How to Treat Infertility With Chinese Herbs--Cistanche
Overcome Infertility --How to Treat Infertility With Cordyceps Sinensis
Overcome Infertility --How to Treat Infertility With Gynostemma Pentaphyllum
Overcome Infertility --How to Treat Infertility With Herb-Maca Root
Overcome Infertility --How to Treat Infertility With Herbs
Overcome Infertility --How to Treat Infertility With Herbs Ginseng
Overcome Infertility --How to Treat Infertility With Herbs Sarsaparilla (Smilax Officinalis)
Overcome Infertility --How to Treat Infertility With Herbs--Stinging Nettles (Urtica Dioica)
Overcome Infertility --How to Treat Infertility With Lycium
Overcome Infertility --How to Treat Infertility With Minerals-- Calcium
Overcome Infertility --How to Treat Infertility With Minerals-- Magnesium
Overcome Infertility --How to Treat Infertility With Minerals-- Manganese
Overcome Infertility --How to Treat Infertility With Minerals--.Copper
Overcome Infertility --How to Treat Infertility With Minerals--Iron
Overcome Infertility --How to Treat Infertility With Minerals--Selenium
Overcome Infertility --How to Treat Infertility With Minerals--Zinc
Overcome Infertility --How to Treat Infertility With Other Supplements --Gamma-linolenic acid (GLA)
Overcome Infertility --How to Treat Infertility With Other Supplements and Over Counter Medicine
Overcome Infertility --How to Treat Infertility With Other Supplements--L-arginine
Overcome Infertility --How to Treat Infertility With Other Supplements--L-carnitine
Overcome Infertility --How to Treat Infertility With Over Counter Medicine-- Guaifenesin
Overcome Infertility --How to Treat Infertility With Over Counter Medicine--Baby Aspirin
Overcome Infertility --How to Treat Infertility With Schizandra chinensis
Overcome Infertility --How to Treat Infertility With Vitamin D
Overcome Infertility --How to Treat Infertility With Vitamin E
Overcome Infertility --How to Treat Infertility With Vitamins
Overcome Infertility --How Vitamin B12 Effects Fertility
Overcome Infertility --How Vitamin C Effects Fertility
Overcome Infertility --Treating Anti Thyroid Antibodies Conventional Perspective
Overcome Infertility --TReating Anti-Nuclear Antibody (ANA) in Conventional Perspective
Overcome Infertility --Treating Anti-phospholipid Antibody Syndrome In Conventional Perspective
Overcome Infertility --Tubal Embryo Transfer (TET) In Conventional Medication
Overcome Infertility --What is " Dry" In Traditional Chinese Medicine In Treating Infertility
Overcome Infertility --What is " Heat " In Traditional Chinese Medicine In Treating Infertility
Overcome Infertility --What is Intra Cervical Insemination In Conventional Medication
Overcome Infertility --What Is Intrauterine Insemination In Conventional Medication
Overcome Infertility -Conventional Medication Helps to Treat Tubal Damage or Adhesion
Overcome Infertility -Fertility and Carbohydrate
Overcome Infertility -Fertility and Essential Fatty Acid
Overcome Infertility -Fertility and Fruit and Vegetables
Overcome Infertility -Fertility and Legumes
Overcome Infertility -Fertility and Pure Water
Overcome Infertility -Fertility and Seeds and Nuts
Overcome Infertility -Intrasytoplastic Sperm Injection (ICSI) In Conventional Medication
Overcome Infertility -Zygote Intrafallopian Tube Transfer (ZIFT) In Conventional Medication
Overcome Infertility 04 - Immunity Causes of Infertility
Overcome Infertility 140- How to Treat Infertility Using White Willow (Salix Alba)
Overcome Infertility Testicle Sperm Extraction (TESE) of Conventional Medication
Overcome Infertility-Menstrual Cycle Modification-How to Nourish The Menstruation Phrase of The Menstrual Cycle
Overcome Infertility-Menstrual Cycle modification-Symptoms, Causes &Treatments Of Painful Ovulation Caused By Blood Stagnation Of The Ovulation Phras
Overcome Infertility-Menstrual Cycle modification-Symptoms, Causes &Treatments Of Blood Stagnation of Ovulation Phrase
Overcome Infertility-Menstrual Cycle modification-Symptoms, Causes &Treatments Of Cold Uterus in The Yang Phrase Of Menstrual Cycle
Overcome Infertility-Menstrual Cycle modification-Symptoms, Causes &Treatments Of Luteal Phrase Defect Caused By Qi Deficiency in The Yang Phrase
Overcome Infertility-Menstrual Cycle modification-Symptoms, Causes &Treatments Of Luteal Phrase Defect In The Yang Phrase
Overcome Infertility-Menstrual Cycle modification-Symptoms, Causes &Treatments Of Shortened Luteal Phrase Caused By Kidney Yin Deficiency in The Yang
Overcome Infertility-Menstrual Cycle modification-Symptoms, Causes &Treatments Of Shortened Luteal Phrase Caused By Liver Qi Stagantion in The Yang Ph
Overcome Infertility-Menstrual Cycle modification-Symptoms, Causes &Treatments Of Symptoms Of Sore Breast And Irritability Of The Ovulation Phrase
Overcome Infertility-Menstrual Cycle modification-Symptoms, Causes &Treatments Of Uterine Lining Out Of Phrase Caused By Kidney Yang Deficiency in The
Overcome Infertilty --What Exhibit Infectous Diseases To Cause Infertility
Overcome Infertilty --What Exihibits Tubal Conditions To Cause Infertility
Overcome Infertilty 20--Ectopic Pregnancy Causes of Infertility
Overcome Infertilty --3 Main Organs In Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM)
Overcome Infertilty --Birth Defects Causes of Infertility
Overcome Infertilty --Environment Causes of Infertility
Overcome Infertilty --Hormone Imbalance Causes of Infertility
Overcome Infertilty --Irregular Cells Growth Causes of Infertility
Overcome Infertilty --Medical Condition Causes of Infertility
Overcome Infertilty --Medication Causes of Infertility
Overcome Infertilty --Ovarian Causes of Infertility
Overcome Infertilty --Sexually Transmitted Diseases Causes of Infertility
Overcome Infertilty --Spermic Causes of Infertility
Overcome Infertilty --Syndrome Causes of Infertility
Overcome Infertilty --Testicle Causes of Infertility
Overcome Infertilty --Understand Female Biological Clock
Overcome Infertilty --Understand Fertility
Overcome Infertilty --Understand Male Biological Clock
Overcome Infertilty --Unexplained Causes of Infertility
Overcome Infertilty --Uterine Causes of Infertility
Overcome Infertilty --Vagina Causes of Infertility
Overcome Infertilty --What Exhibits Abnormal Cell Growth to Cause Infertility
Overcome Infertilty --What Exhibits Cervical Conditions to Cause Infertility
Overcome Infertilty --What Exhibits Hormone Imbalance to Cause Infertility
Overcome Infertilty --What Exhibits Testicle Problem to Cause Infertility
Overcome Infertilty --What exhibits Vaginal Conditions To Cause Infertility
Overcome Infertilty --What Exihibits Uterine Conditions To Cause Infertility
Overcome Infertilty --What is " Cold" In Traditional Chinese Medicine In treating Infertility
Overcome Infertilty --What is " Damp" In Traditional Chinese Medicine In Treating Infertility
Overcome Infertilty --What is " Wind " In Traditional Chinese Medicine In Treating Infertility
Overcome Infertilty --What is Deficiency of Kidney Yin In Traditional Chinese Medicine
Overcome Infertilty --What is Liver Blood Stagnation In Traditional Chinese Medicine
Overcome Male Infertility - Diagnosis From Conventional Perspective
Overcome Male Infertility -- How Conventional Medication Helps to Treat Undescended Testicle
Overcome Male Infertility -- How Conventional Surgery helps to Treat Torsion
Overcome Male Infertility --What Is Acrosome Reaction Test
Overcome Male Infertility --What is Antisperm Antibody Test ?.
Overcome Male Infertility -- How Conventional Medication Helps to Treat Block and Missing Ducts
Overcome Male Infertility -- How Conventional Medication Helps to Treat Hypospadias and Epispadia
Overcome Male Infertility -- Types of Structure Problem in Conventional Medicine Perspective
Overcome Male Infertility --How to Treat Infertility With Centella Asiatica (Gotu Cola)
Overcome Male Infertility --How to Treat Infertility With Chinese Herbs--Male Silk Moth Extracted
Overcome Male Infertility --How to Treat Infertility With Chinese Herbs--Rehmannia Glutinosa
Overcome Male Infertility --How to Treat Infertility With Deer Antler
Overcome Male Infertility --How to Treat Infertility With False Unicorn Root
Overcome Male Infertility --How to Treat Infertility With Flaxseed
Overcome Male Infertility --How to Treat Infertility With Horny Goat Weed (Epimedium grandiflorum)
Overcome Male Infertility --How to Treat Infertility With Maritime Pine Tree ( Pinus pinaster )
Overcome Male Infertility --How to Treat Infertility With Polygonum multiflorum
Overcome Male Infertility --How to Treat Infertility With Saw Palmetto
Overcome Male Infertility --How to Treat Infertility With Wild Yam
Overcome Male Infertility --What is Biochemical Analysis ?
Overcome Male Infertility --What is Computer-Assist Semen Analysis ??
Overcome Male infertility --What is Hemizona Assay??
Overcome Male Infertility --What is Hypoosmotic swelling test (HOST)??
Overcome Male Infertility --What Is Kidney Yang Deficiency In traditional Chinese Medicine In Treating Infertility
Overcome Male Infertility --What is Kidney Ying Deficiency In traditional Chinese medicine in treating infertility
Overcome Male Infertility --What is Peroxidase Staining test ?
Overcome Male Infertility --What is Post-coital/Cervical Mucus Test?
Overcome Male Infertility --What is Scrotal sonography ??
Overcome Male Infertility --What is Semen analysis ?
Overcome Male Infertility --What Is Stagnation of qi and Blood In Traditional Chinese Medicine In Treating Infertility
Overcome Male Infertility --What is Testicle Biopsy?
Overcome Male Infertility -Diagnosis or test From Conventional Perspective
Overcome Male Infertility -How to Treat Infertility With Evening Primrose
Overcome Male Infertility -Sperm abnormality In Conventional Perspective
Overcome Male Infertility -Sperm abnormality In Nutritional Supplements Perspective
Overcome Male Infertility -Sperm abnormality In Traditional Chinese Perspective
Overcome Male Infertility -What is Sperm Penetration Assay (Hamster Test)?
Overcome Male Infertilty --What is Human Zona Pellucida Binding Test ?
Overcome Male Infertilty --What is Sperm-Ubiquitin tag immunoassay (SUTI)??
Overcome Male Infertilty --What is Vasography Analysis ?
Overcone Infertility - Premature Ovarian Failure In Conventional Medicine Perspectives
Phytochemicals: 11 Health Benefits of Plant Sterols
Phytochemicals: 12 Health Benefits of Carotenoids
Phytochemicals: 13 Health Benefits of Capsaicin
Phytochemicals: 15 Health Benefits of Allyl sulfides
Phytochemicals: 15 Health Benefits of Currcumin
Phytochemicals: 15 Health Benefits of Ellagic Acid
Phytochemicals: 15 Health Benefits of Flavonoids
Phytochemicals: 15 Health Benefits of Isoflavones
Phytochemicals: 15 Health Benefits of Limonoids
Phytochemicals: 16 Health Benefits of Polyphenols
Phytochemicals: 18 Health Benefits of Lignans
Pre Menstrual Syndrome (PMS) and Diet- Apple
Pre Menstrual Syndrome (PMS) and Essential Oils-Rosemary
Pre Menstrual Syndrome (PMS) - Diet - Orange
Pre Menstrual Syndrome (PMS) - Diet - Whole Grain
Pre Menstrual Syndrome (PMS) - Essential Oils - Grapefruit Oil
Pre Menstrual Syndrome (PMS) - Essential Oils-Jasmine
Pre Menstrual Syndrome (PMS) - Essential Oils-Juniper
Pre Menstrual Syndrome (PMS) - Herbs for Depression
Pre Menstrual Syndrome (PMS) - Herbs for Hormone Imbalance
Pre Menstrual Syndrome (PMS) - Herbs for Liver
Pre Menstrual Syndrome (PMS) - Herbs for Stress
Pre Menstrual Syndrome (PMS) - Herbs for Water Retention
Pre Menstrual Syndrome (PMS) and Acupressure
Pre Menstrual Syndrome (PMS) and Acupuncture
Pre Menstrual Syndrome (PMS) and Ayurveda
Pre Menstrual Syndrome (PMS) and Chisese Herbs - Lovage ( Chuan Xiong)
Pre Menstrual Syndrome (PMS) and Conventional Treatment - Antidepressants
Pre Menstrual Syndrome (PMS) And Conventional Treatment - Diuretics
Pre Menstrual Syndrome (PMS) And Conventional Treatment - Estrogen Hormone Therapy
Pre Menstrual Syndrome (PMS) and Conventional Treatment - Progesterone Therapy
Pre Menstrual Syndrome (PMS) and Conventional Treatment - Progestogen
Pre Menstrual Syndrome (PMS) and Conventional Treatment--Prostaglandins Inhibitor
Pre Menstrual Syndrome (PMS) and Conventional Treatment--The Pill
Pre Menstrual Syndrome (PMS) and Diet - Banana
Pre Menstrual Syndrome (PMS) and Diet - Bok Choy
Pre Menstrual Syndrome (PMS) and Diet - Broccoli
Pre Menstrual Syndrome (PMS) and Diet - Eggplant
Pre Menstrual Syndrome (PMS) and Diet - Flaxseed
Pre Menstrual Syndrome (PMS) and Diet - Garlic
Pre Menstrual Syndrome (PMS) and Diet - Ginger Root
Pre Menstrual Syndrome (PMS) and Diet - Grapefruit
Pre Menstrual Syndrome (PMS) and Diet - Kelp
Pre Menstrual Syndrome (PMS) and Diet - Nuts and Seeds
Pre Menstrual Syndrome (PMS) and Diet - Olive Oil
Pre Menstrual Syndrome (PMS) and Diet - Red Pepper
Pre Menstrual Syndrome (PMS) and Diet - Soybean
Pre Menstrual Syndrome (PMS) and Diet - Wild Cold Water Fish
Pre Menstrual Syndrome (PMS) and diet -Red Wine
Pre Menstrual Syndrome (PMS) and Gonadotrophin-Releasing Hormone (GrNH)
Pre Menstrual Syndrome (PMS) and Herbs For Insomnia
Pre Menstrual Syndrome (PMS) and Homeopathy
Pre Menstrual Syndrome (PMS) and Homeopathy- Natrium Muriaticium
Pre Menstrual Syndrome (PMS) and Homeopathy- Pulstatilla
Pre Menstrual Syndrome (PMS) and Homeopathy-Sepia
Pre Menstrual Syndrome (PMS) and Homoeopathy - Nux Vomica
Pre Menstrual Syndrome (PMS) and Light therapy
Pre Menstrual Syndrome (PMS) and Massage
Pre Menstrual Syndrome (PMS) and Organ Liver
Pre Menstrual Syndrome (PMS) and Psychotherapy
Pre Menstrual Syndrome (PMS) and Reflexology
Pre Menstrual Syndrome (PMS) and Yoga
Pre Menstrual Syndrome 42 - Pre Menstrual Syndrome (PMS) and Chisese Herbs- Blood Stagnation
Pre Menstrual Syndrome and Blood Sugar
Pre menstrual Syndrome and Chinese Herbs for Liver Blood Stagnation
Pre menstrual Syndrome and Chinese Herbs - Jujubae Date ( Da Zao)
Pre menstrual Syndrome and Chinese Herbs - Red sage root ( dan sen)
Pre menstrual Syndrome and Chinese Herbs - Safflower ( Hong Hua)
Pre menstrual Syndrome and Chinese Herbs - Tree peony root bark ( Mu dan pi)
Pre Operative Evaluation- Blood and Coagulation Studies
Pre Operative Evaluation- Urinary studies and Endometrial Biopsy
Pre Operative Evaluations Before Endometrial Hysterectomy
Pre-menstrual Syndrome ( PMS) and Alcohol
Pre-menstrual Syndrome (PMS) and Breast Tenderness
Pre-menstrual Syndrome (PMS) and Fatty Acids
Pre-menstrual Syndrome (PMS) and Minerals
Pre-menstrual Syndrome (PMS) and Vitamin A
Pre-menstrual Syndrome (PMS) and Vitamin B3
Pre-menstrual Syndrome (PMS) and Vitamin B5
Pre-menstrual Syndrome (PMS) and Vitamin B6
Pre-menstrual Syndrome (PMS) and Vitamin E
Pre-menstrual Syndrome (PMS) and Vitamins
Pre-menstrual Syndrome and Chinese Herbs - Angelica Root (Dong quai)
Pre-menstrual Syndrome and Chinese Herbs - Cinnamon bark (rou gui)
Pre-menstrual Syndrome and Chinese Herbs - Cuscuta (tu si zi)
Pre-menstrual Syndrome and Chinese Herbs - Morinda root ( ba ji tian)
Pre-menstrual Syndrome and Chinese Herbs - Red pony ( Chi shao )
Pre-menstrual Syndrome and Chinese Herbs - Water plaintain root (ze xie)
Pre-menstrual Syndrome and Chinese Herbs -General View
Pre-menstrual Syndrome and Chinese Herbs For Kidney Deficiency
Pre-menstrual Syndrome and Chinese Herbs- Fennel Seed ( Xiao Hu Xiang)
Pre-menstrual Syndrome and Chinese Herbs- Liver Qi Stagnation
Pre-menstrual Syndrome and Chinese Herbs- Rehmannia Glutinosa (Shu Li Huang)
Pre-menstrual Syndrome and Chinese Herbs- White Pony ( Bai Shao)
Pre-menstrual Syndrome and Chinese Herbs- Yellow Dock Root
Pre-menstrual Syndrome and Herbs
Pre-menstrual Syndrome and Herbs - Black Cohosh
Pre-menstrual Syndrome and Herbs - Chaste Berry Tree
Pre-menstrual Syndrome and Herbs - Licorice root
Pre-menstrual Syndrome and Herbs - Milk thistle
Pre-menstrual Syndrome and Herbs - Skullcap
Pre-menstrual Syndrome and Herbs - St. John Wort
Pre-Menstrual Syndrome and Mineral - Chromium
Pre-menstrual Syndrome and Mineral - Magnesium
Pre-menstrual Syndrome and Mineral - Manganese
Pre-menstrual Syndrome and Mineral - Zinc
Pre-menstrual Syndrome and Minerals - Calcium
Pre-menstrual Syndrome and Phytoestrogen
Pre-menstrual Syndrome and Salt
Pre-menstrual Syndrome and Xanoestrogen
Pre-menstrual Syndrone (PMS) and Prostaglandins
Pre-menstrual Syndrone - Types of PMS
Pre-menstrual Syndrone : Essential Fatty acids, Tryptophan and Serotonin
Pre-menstrual Syndrone and Artificial Sweetener
Pre-menstrual Syndrone and Caffeine
Pre-menstrual Syndrone and Dairy Foods
Pre-menstrual Syndrone and Insomnia
Pre-menstrual Syndrone(PMS) and Smoking
Premenstrual Syndrome ( PMS ) and Migraine Headche and Headache
Premenstrual Syndrome ( PMS )- Causes of PMS
Premenstrual Syndrome ( PMS )- Definition, Types, Diagnosis and Risk Factors
Premenstrual Syndrome ( PMS )- Emotional and Physical Symptoms
Premenstrual Syndrome ( PMS )- What Causes Anxiety in PMS
Premenstrual Syndrome ( PMS )- What causes Hyper-hydration
Premenstrual Syndrome ( PMS )- What Causes PMS Depression
Premenstrual Syndrome ( PMS )- What Causes PMS Food Craving
Premenstrual Syndrome ( PMS )- What Exhibit High Levels of Estrogen to Cause PMS
Premenstrual Syndrome ( PMS )- What Exhibit Low Levels of Estrogen to Cause PMS
Premenstrual Syndrome ( PMS )- What Exhibit Low Levels of Serotonin to Cause PMS (II)
Premenstrual Syndrome ( PMS )- What Exhibits Low Levels of Serotonin to Causes PMS
Premenstrual Syndrome ( PMS )- What Exhibits Low Thyroid Function to Causes PMS
Premenstrual Syndrome ( PMS )- What Exhibits Stress To Cause PMS
Premenstrual Syndrome ( PMS )- What Exhibits the Problem With Glucose Tolerance to Cause PMS
Premenstrual Syndrome ( PMS )- What Exhibits Too Much Adrenaline To Causes PMS
Premenstrual Syndrome ( PMS )- What Exhibits Too Much Androgen to Cause PMS
Preparation for Endometrial Hysterectomy
Progestogens and Minerals
Progestogens and Vitamins
Prostaglandin Inhibitors and Minerals
Prostaglandins Inhibitors and Vitamins
Prostaglandins inhibitors, Endometriosis, Infertility, The Causes of Infertility, Dialation and Curettage ( D&C)
Prostate Health - Causes of Enlarged Prostate and Prostate Cancer
Prostate Health - How To Prevent Prostate Enlargement With Common Sense Approaches
Prostate Health - Symptoms and Signs of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH)
Prostate Health - Activities That Help to Maintain A Healthy Prostate
Prostate Health - How To Prevent Prostate Enlargement With Nutritional Supplements
Prostate Health - Types Of Herbs Help To Prevent Prostate Enlargement
Questions Before Endometrial Hysterectomy
Raw Food Diet - Can It Be Another Unexplained Cause of Infertility
Raw Food Diet - Can It Enhance Pregnancy For Overweight American?
Raw Food Diet - How it Affects a Person's Fertility With YANG Constitution in TCM Perspective
Raw Food Diet - How it Affects a Person's Fertility With YIN Constitution in TCM Perspective
Raw Food Diet - How it Increases Energy For a Typical American Dieter - In TCM Perspective
Raw Food Diet - How It Makes A Typical American Dieter Lose Weight In Conventional & Traditional Chinese Medcine Perspective
Raw Food Diet - How It Reduces the Risks of Stroke Caused by the Typical American Diet in Conventional and Traditional Chinese Medicine Perspectives
Raw Food Diet - The Best Weight Loss Program For Over Weight American
Sexual Activity After Endometrial Hysterectomy
Stroke-- Causes, Symptoms The Risk Factors, Types, Prevention and Treatment
Symptoms and Risks of the Oral Contraceptive Pills
Symptoms of Endometriosis
Symptoms of Heart Diseases
Symptoms of Menopause After Endometrial Hysterectomy
Symptoms, Causes & Treament of Amenorrhea Caused By Liver Qi Stagnation In TCM Perspective
The Good and Bad of Gonadotrophin-releasing Hormone (GrNH)
The Good and Bad of Prostaglandin Inhibitors
The Good, Bad, Side Effects and Risks of Progestins
The World Most Popular Herb - Anise - Health Benefits and Side Effects
The World Most Popular Herb - Artichoke - Health Benefits and Side Effects
The World Most Popular Herbs - Alfalfa Health Benefits and Side Effects
The World Most Popular Herbs - Andrographis - Health Benefits and Side Effects
The World Most Popular Herbs - Arnica - Health Benefits and Side Effects
The World Most Popular Herbs - Ashwagandha Health Benefits and Side Effects
The World Most Popular Herbs - Astragalus Health Benefits and Side Effects
Treating White Coating Tongue In General, Conventional and TCM Perspectives
Types of Anesthesia
Types of Conventional Treatment for Infertility
Types of Dementia
Types of Diagnosis
Types of Heart Diseases
Types of Hysterectomy
Types of Infertility
Understand Hormone Replacement Therapy and Cancer
Understand Potential Risks and Complications of Endometrial Hysterectomy
Weight Loss - How To Lose Weight Naturally
What Are Oral Contraceptive Combination Pills?
What Causes Alzheimer's Disease
What Causes Endometriosis?
What Exhibits Coelomic Metaplasia to Cause Endometriosis?
What Exhibits Congenital Or Embryonic Rest to Cause Endometriosis?
What Exhibits Hormonal Imbalance to Cause Endometriosis?
What Exhibits Iatrogenic Origin to Cause Endometriosis?
What Exhibits Inflammation to Cause Endometriosis?
What Exhibits Lymphatic Transplantation to Cause Endometriosis?
What Is Abdominal Hysterectomy ??
What is an Oral Contraceptive Pill?
What Is Cesarean Hysterectomy ?
What is Computed Axial Tomograghy (CT Scanning Or CAT)?
What is Diagnostic Cystoscopy?
What is Diagnostic Hysteroscopy?
What is Diagnostic Laparoscopy?
What is Dilation and Curettage (D&C)?
What is Electron Beam Tomography (EBT) In Endometriosis?
What is Endometrial Ablation ??
What is Endometrial Biopsy?
What is Endometrial Hyperplasia?
What is Endometrial Thermal Balloon Ablation ??
What is Endometriosis ?
What is Estrogen Therapy (ERT)?
What is GnRH Agonists??
What is Hysterectomy ??
What is Laparoscopic Hysterectomy (LH) ??
What is Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)?
What is Progesterone Agonist?
What is Prostaglandins Inhibitors ?
What is Unilateral Oophorectomy ??
What Is Vaginal Hysterectomy ?


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