Today, there are many different methods of contraception available to prevent pregnancy. The most popular way is hormonal contraception, which includes “the pill” or combined pill, the mini-pill, the patch, and the ring. Contraceptive pills are available in two forms. One of them is the combined pill, which contains two hormones, a synthetic oestrogen and a synthetic progestogen. These pills are very popular and work in three different ways. The first way is by suppressing the ovulation process, which is related to the maturation and release of egg from the ovary. Secondly, they alter the lining of uterus so that if an egg is released, it cannot imbed itself and grow. Lastly, they alter the cervical mucus so that sperm cannot enter the womb.
Logynon tablets are used as hormonal contraception and are commonly known as combined oral contraceptive pills. These tablets contain two active ingredients, ethinylestradiol and levonorgestrel. These are synthetic female sex hormones of oestrogen and progestogen. Ethinylestradiol is a synthetic version of oestrogen and levonorgestrel is a synthetic version of progestogen. They work by over-riding the normal menstrual cycle. In the normal menstrual cycle, the levels of these hormones change throughout the month, which causes an egg to be released from the ovaries. This process is known as ovulation and it prepares the uterus by stimulating its lining to grow for the fertilized egg. At the end of each cycle, if the egg has not been fertilized, levels of progestogen and oestrogen fall, which results in the breaking of the uterus lining and the whole cycle starts all over again.
These pills need to be used on a daily basis and they work by tricking the body that ovulation has already taken place. This prevents an egg from being matured and being released from the ovaries each month. These hormones also help in increasing the thickness of natural mucus of the cervix, which prevent sperm to fertilize. It also helps in breaking the lining of the uterus wall and makes it difficult for the fertilized egg to be implanted there. Some women are also given prescription for contraceptive pills if they have problems with heavy, painful, and irregular periods because these pills result in lighter, less painful, and more regular menstrual bleeding.
Another type of hormonal contraceptive is the mini-pill, which only contains progestogen. It just prevents pregnancy by altering the womb lining and cervical mucus. It is marginally less effective than combined contraceptives. The mini-pill is recommended for women who are sensitive to oestrogen, which are diabetic or having blood pressure, women above 35 years of age and smoking, and those who are breastfeeding.
Another new type of hormonal contraception is the NuvaRing, which is a flexible vaginal ring approved for the prevention of pregnancy in women. It is available on prescription only. It takes the form of a vaginal ring. It is as effective as a combined pill contraceptive. The advantage of NuvaRing is that it only needs once to be used each month. It is popular with women, who want an effective contraception without using a daily pill. The NuvaRing is small, thin and flexible and is inserted into the vagina once a month and removed after three weeks, but is effective for the whole month.
Evra patch is a transdermal contraceptive patch, which gives protection from pregnancy. Its application is very easy. This patch only needs to be replaced weekly. Each Evra patch contains oestrogen and progestogen as in combined contraceptive pills. This patch works differently. It releases the hormones directly into the body through the skin. So, this is a comfortable way of contraceptive protection that doesn’t need to be taken orally on a daily basis.