The bladder is a hollow elastic organ in the center of the lower abdomen that collects urine from the kidneys and excreted them through the urethra.
Bladder cancer is most common type of cancer that effect men twice as frequently as it effects women. Usually it starts from the lining the bladder caused by several types of malignant growths of the urinary bladder cells.
Types of Bladder cancer
A. There are three types of bladder cancer beginning in cells in the lining of the bladder, classified due to their origination.
1. Transitional cell carcinoma
In early stage of bladder cancer, normal cells become cancerous in the innermost tissue layer of the bladder which can change shape and stretch without breaking apart as they are able to stretch when the bladder is full and shrink when it is emptied. More than 90 percent of bladder cancers begin in the transitional cells
2. Squamous cell carcinoma
Cancer begins in squamous cells in the found in the tissues of the surface of the bladder, due to long-term infection or irritation. About 8 percent of people with bladder cancers begin squamous cells
Cancer begins originates in glandular tissue of the bladder, including the surface layer of skin, glands and a variety of other tissue, due to long-term irritation and inflammation. Only 2 percent of people with the condition have a third bladder cancer type.
B. Types of bladder cancer classified due to their proliferation
1. Superficial types of bladder cancer
This type of bladder cancers have a characteristic of often recurrence but usually non invasive. It can be controlled or removed by regular cystoscopy.
2. Invasive types of bladder cancer
Invasive types of bladder cancer tend to spread after beginning in cells in the lining of the bladder. It often requires surgery by removing part or whole bladder.
Stages of bladder cancer
Bladder cancer can be classified in difference stage depending to the location, size, and spread of the cancer.
Stage 0: Cancer cells are found only on the inner lining of the bladder
Stage I: Cancer cells have spread to the layer beyond the inner lining of the bladder but not to the muscles.
Stage II: Cancer cells have spread to the muscles in the bladder wall but not to the fatty tissue that surrounds the bladder.
Stage III: Cancer cells have spread to the fatty tissue surrounding the urinary bladder and nearby organs, but not to the lymph nodes or other organs.
Stage IV: Cancer cells have spread to the lymph nodes, and/or other organs, etc.
Recurrent: Cancer has recurred in the bladder and/or another nearby organs after treatments.
1. Bladder spasms
2. Blood in urine
3. Frequent urination
4. Pain or burning sensation during urination
5. Pain in lower back and/or abdomen
6. Inability to urinate
7. Urinary urgency
8. Reduced bladder capacity
9. Difficult in urination
10. Loss of appetite and weight
Everybody knows that cigarette smoking is a major cause of lung cancer, but not many people understand that it also can lead to bladder cancer. Study of a group of people with the available smoking information, included duration of smoking habit, number of cigarettes smoked per day and time since cessation of smoking habit for ex-smokers, showed cigarette smoking increases the risk of bladder cancer with 1.96 after 20 years of smoking to 5.57 after 60 years, with an immediate decrease in risk of bladder cancer was observed for those who gave up smoking by over 30%. In fact, cigarette contains certain harmful chemicals which can also lead to bladder cancer due to prolong period of exposure in the limning of bladder walls.
2. Chemicals exposure
Reseachers investigated the risk of bladder cancer in association with exposure to over 12 000 occupational chemical agents, complex mixtures, and other substances, showed that increased risk of bladder cancer was detected for ever exposure to 635 chemical agents, and 341 chemical agents exhibited a significantly increasing dose-response relationship.
3. Diet high in fried meats and fat
Study showed that risk of bladder cancer increased by 37% with a high fat intake, by 40% with low fruit consumption and by 16% with diets low in vegetables.
The acceptance of that aging is one the greatest single risk factor for developing bladder cancer due to weakened immune system, increased free radicals frequent attacked, genetic and epigenetic changes, environmental influences, etc.
5. Infection caused by a certain parasite
A parasite worm, Schistosoma which can lead to Schistosomiasis, is a chronic disease that can damage a person internal organs and the urinary form of schistosomiasis may cause bladder cancer in adults. Schistosomiasis can also lead to inflammation of bladder lining leading to the transitional cell carcinoma, the predominant type of bladder cancer.
Diagnosis are always important for people who have had the symptoms mentioned above. If bladder cancer is diagnosed early, most of the times it can be cured.
Beside checking the patient personal health history and smoking habit, rectal examination for men and pelvic examination, others exams include
1. Urine test
Urine test is one of the first test which your doctor may order to rule out conditions of infection or inflammation causes of similar symptoms and detect the presence of certain antibodies and other markers may indicate bladder cancer.
Any abnormality found in urine test will be sent for urinalysis such as blood, protein, and sugar.
If you urine test came back positive, your doctor may want to take a look inside your bladder for abnormalities such as tumors by inserting a very narrow tube with a light and a camera on the end through the urethra. The camera transmits pictures to a video monitor for a direct viewing of the inside of the bladder wall.
4. Intravenous Pyelography (IVP)
The test is performed by taking a series of x-ray films of your bladder after injecting a drug solution with a catheter through the urethra to highlight and mark any abnormality inside your bladder easier. You are asked not to pass urine for a few hour after injection.
5. CT scan
CT scan can dive your doctor a three-dimensional view of your bladder and the rest of your urinary tract to look for masses and other abnormalities such as tumor.
This test usually is done under local anesthesia. If the lump is found in the bladder wall or area which is suspicious to be tumor, a tiny samples of your bladder wall are removed usually during cystoscopy and examined by a pathologist. Small tumors can also be removed during the biopsy process.
a. Removal of superficial tumors
Normally if the tumor is the superficial type, general anesthesia is sometimes used for operative cystoscopic which is endoscopy of the urinary bladder via the urethra.
b. Total cystectomy
When cancer invades the muscle of the bladder wall, it is usually necessary to remove the entire bladder surgically, but for women patients, researchers advice that total cystectomy could manage invasive bladder cancer in women patients but night continence is not as good as that in men patients.
c. Partial cystectomy
Sometime by preserving the bladder, partial or segmental cystectomy is involved to remove only part of bladder tumor and surrounding bladder wall but researchers found that only 5.8-18.9% of patients with muscle-invasive bladder cancer are suitable candidates for partial cystectomy.
After the invasive cancer tumor is removed, if cancer cells are found on the edge of the removal tumor, your specialist may suggest radiotherapy to kill and prevent the cancer cells from spreading or if you want to try to keep your bladder, or try to keep your potency. Radiotherapy is the use of high energy rays to kill cancer cells. Treatments are usually 3 times a week, for up to 6 weeks or longer.
Chemotherapy is a method of treating cancer by using single drugs or combination of drugs to kill cancerous cells, especially for spreading quickly cancer cells or cancer cells have spread to other parts of body. In some case, chemotherapy may be recommended before surgery and/or radiotherapy.
Phototherapy is treatment of a disease by exposing to light, especially by variously concentrated light rays or specific wavelengths. In one study, researchers found that the best results of treating bladder cancer by phototherapy were noted in tumors less than six mm. in diameter when treated with 15 mg./kg dihematoporphyrin ether (DHE) and exposed to 100 to 180 minutes of visible light.(Source)
Read more at http://www.wrongdiagnosis.com/treat/phototherapy.htm?ktrack=kcplinkPorphyrin-sensitized photoradiation therapy (PSPT) is a promising treatment for a variety of malignant tumors. Researchers found that phototherapy have a potential for a new modality in treating recurrent and resistant bladder cancer. Information gained form the basic studies will provide a better understanding for mechanisms of porphyrin uptake, retention and photosensitization in tumor cells, thus providing a basis for improving the treatment by increasing the efficacy and reducing the side effects. The development and the information can also be useful in the treatment of other tumors by PSPT.
5. Intravesical or instillation
Bladder instillations are treatments of putting drugs directly into the bladder by inserting a catheter through the urethra, normally without using general anesthesia. You are asked not to urine for a few hours. The treatment sometimes cause temporary bleeding and bladder irritation.
If you have read my previous article, Anti-Aging - How to Live Longer & Healthier:Antioxidants, Free Radicals, Cancers, Diseases, You might already know that vitamins and minerals play an important in preventing and treating DNA mutation in cells division and replication. In fact, they are vital for people with bladder cancer
1. Vitamin B6
Study found that Vitamin B6 in several clinical trials in bladder cancer, may benefit patients with bladder cancer by improving immune function fighting against the forming of free radical and irregular cells growth causes of bladder cancer.
2. Vitamin D
Vitamin D is best known for its function in nehance the absorption of calcium in preventing osteoporosis, but in bladder cancer, studies found that exposure to ultraviolet B (UVB) activates photosynthesis of vitamin D3 in elevated levels in the body, lowering the risk of bladder cancers.
3. Vitamin E
Regular use of vitamin E supplement for longer than 10 years was associated with a reduced risk of bladder cancer mortality , but regular use of shorter duration was not.
‘The lower the levels of selenium, the higher the risk of developing bladder cancer,’ said lead researcher Nuria Malats, M.D., Ph.D., leader of the Genetic and Molecular Epidemiology Group, Human Cancer Genetics Program, Spanish National Cancer Research Centre, but the researchers noted a significant protective effect of selenium, mainly among women, which they believe may result from gender-specific differences in the mineral’s accumulation and excretion in women.
Researchers from UT M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, UT Health Science Center School of Public Health, Houston, TX, Baylor College of Medicine and Methodist Hospital, Houston, TX found that further evidence for a chemopreventive role for carotenoids by demonstrating that high carotenoid intake is associated with an overall decrease in BC risk and provided a reduction in risk for smokers and among individuals susceptible to DNA damage. These data may have important implications for cancer prevention, especially for individuals susceptible to DNA damage.
6. Combination of carotenoids, vitamin D , thiamin, niacin, and vitamin E
researchers found that in older individuals, the highest average intakes of the above were all associated with a reduced bladder cancer risk. In smokers, they also found that the highest intakes of vitamin E, carotenoids and niacin, were associated with a 42, 38, and 34 per cent reduction in bladder cancer risk in heavy smokers.
Some study found that phosphorus intakes also reduce the risk in bladder cancer.
1. calciferous vegetables
Studies found that increased intake of calciferous vegetables may slash the risk of bladder cancer by 36 per cent, says new research that attributes the benefits to the isothiocyanate content.
The Roswell Park researchers collected dietary data from 275 hospital-based bladder cancer patients and 825 cancer-free people, and found that those who consumed the highest consumption of raw cruciferous vegetables was associated with a 36 per cent reduction ibladder cancer risk
Furthermore, stronger protective effects were observed among current and heavy smokers with an intake of three or more servings of raw cruciferous vegetables per month associated with a 54 and 40 per cent reduction, respectively.
Reseachers found that genistein, soy phytochemical concentrate, and soy protein isolate have the ability to inhibit the growth of transplantable murine bladder cancer in vivo. Genistein, dietary soy phytochemical concentrate, and dietary soy protein isolate reduced tumor size by 40%, 48%, and 37%, respectively, as compared with controls.
Chinese garlic-lovers are not the only ones to benefit from garlic's cancer-fighting abilities, including bladder cancer. John Milner, Ph.d., from Pennsylvania State University, points out in a review article tracking the anti-cancer effects of garlic that "the potential benefits of garlic appear not to be limited to a specific region of the world ..." when researchers noticed that a certain region of this country had both an extraordinarily high garlic intake and a surprisingly low rate of stomach cancer.
4. Green tea
Green tea is made from unfermented leaves and reportedly contains the highest concentration of powerful antioxidants called polyphenols the free radical scavengers that limit the damaging of DNA alternation resulting in lessening the risk of cancer, including bladder cancer. Green tea also has cancer-fighting properties and may cut off blood vessels that feed cancerous tumors.
Most common Types of Cancer - Bladder Cancer In Traditional Chinese Medicine Perspective
Bladder cancer occurs when cells amass in the inner lining of the bladder and form a malignant growth, or tumor. Cancer develops only in the bladder lining may become invasive, spreading through the bladder wall to nearby organs such as the prostate gland in men or the uterus in women.
1. Traditional Chinese medicine indicated that urinary with blood is one of the first symptom discovered by bladder cancer patient. Sometimes, red blood cells can be viewed by naked eyes but most of the times, it required blood test.
2. Back pain
3. Fluid retention in the kidney
5. Other symptoms are similar to the conventional medicine.
Most patient with early bladder cancer my experience blood in urine with no pain at all.
Occupation required to contact with chemical toxins daily and over a prolonged period of time have a high risk of bladder cancer. Most workers do not experience any symptom of bladder cancer until later in their life. We are taking about the period over 30 years.
Cigarette contains certain harmful chemicals which can cause cancer. In China, due to social culture difference, the risk of male and female with bladder cancer is 41%, 30% accordingly.
The risk of bladder cancer increases with age. The older you are, the higher the risk.
The risk of bladder cancer of male is 4 time higher than women
Certain race are high risk of bladder cancer
6. Chemicals tryptophan
By products of tryptophan such as 3-hydroxy-2-amino-acetophenone and 3-Hydroxyindazole
can promote the risk of bladder cancer due to reaction of β-glucuronidases.
Diet high in saturated fat increases the risk of bladder cancer.
8. family history
Bladder cancer risk increase if a member of the direct family have bladder cancer.
Prolonged infection or frequent infection increase the risk of bladder cancer.
Certain types of medication can promote the forming of bladder cancer.
Causes of Bladder cancer in TCM
The traditional Chinese medicine defined bladder cancer is a health condition caused by
A. Heart Fire Shifting Downwards to the small intestine
Heart Fire is an excess problem, due to elevating yang or yang rise is out of control. Since heart is associated with the fire, excessive yang leading to fire and heat. If heart fire with extra heat move downward to the small intestine, it affects the bladder in functioning of urinary secretion.
If left untreated, it can cause inflammation and bleeding, leading to bladder cancer.
1. Symptoms include
1.a. Heart palpitations
1.c. Feeling of heat
1.d. Urination with blood
1.e. Hot, dark urine
1.f. Bitter taste in the mouth
1.g. Frequent urination
1.h. Urgent need to urinate
2. Chinese Herbs
a. Shui Niu Jiao (Bubalus bubalis)
Shui Niu Jiao is also known as water buffalo horn. The salty, cold herb has been used in TCM as sedative, anti-inflammatory, anti-virus medicine and to shorten bleeding time, enhance quality of capillaries as it clears heat, relieve fire, cool blood, stop nosebleed, vomiting blood by enhancing the function of heart, liver, spleen, stomach channels.
b. Lian Qiao (Fructus Forsythiae Suspensae)
Lian Qiao is also known as forsythia fruit. The bitter, cool, and slightly acrid herb has been used in TCM as anti inflammatory medicine and to stop vomiting, promote blood circulation and urination as it helps to clears heat and toxin and expels externally wind heat by enhancing the function of heart, liver gall bladder channels.
c. Zhu Ye (Herba Loaphatheri Gracilis)
Zhu ye is also known as bamboo leaves. The sweet, cold and bitter herb has been used in TCM to
treat mouth sores and inflamed gums caused by heat, promotes urination and treat insomnia as it helps to clear damp heat, heart fire and stomach heat by enhancing the functions of heart, small intestine, stomach channels.
d. Lian Zi Xin (Lotus Plumule)
Lian Zi Xin also known as Lotus Flower. The bitter and cold herb has been used in TCM as an astringent and to treat insomnia, irritability, stop bleeding and vomiting blood as it promotes the draining of heart fire and bind essence by enhancing the functions of heart and pericardium channels.
B. Damp heat moves downward to the bladder
It is caused by kidney inability to move fluid upward, causing fluid accumulated in the abdomen. Prolonged period of fluid accumulation promote arise of heat that affect the urinary secretion of the bladder, resulting of bleeding and damage the functioning of the bladder, leading to bladder cancer, if untreated for a prolonged period of time.
1. Symptoms include
1.a. Frequent urination
1.b. Urgent need to urinate
1.c. Urinary pain, back pain, edema of lower limbs
1.e. Difficult to go to sleep at night
1.f. Red tongue with yellow and greasy fur
1.g. Slippery and taut pulse
2. Chinese Herbs
The function of the herbs are for diuresis, to eliminate dampness, clear heat, cool blood and stop bleeding.
a. Che Qian Zi (Semen Plantaginis)
Che Qian Zi is also known as Plantain seed. The sweet and cold herb has been used in TCM as an antibiotic and to promote urination and to excret mucus of the bronchial tubes as it helps to clear Damp heat in the lower burner channel and damp heat cause of painful urinary, diarrhea , red eyes and sexual dysfunction by enhancing the functions of bladder, kidney, liver, lung channels.
b. Bian Xu (Herba Polygoni Avicularis)
Bian Xu is also known as common knotgrass. The slight cold and bitter herb has been used in TCM to treat urinary infection, get rid of skin parasites and fuild and worms and stop itching as it drains damp heat in bladder, calms pain on urination by enhancing the function of bladder channel.
c. Bo Ye (Cacumen Biotae Orientalis)
Bo Ye or Ce Bai Ye is also known as biota leaves. The bitter, tart and slightly cold herb has been used in TCM to stops bleeding, harmonize blood, inhibit cough, anti-bacteria and anti-inflammation as it purifies and lowers the lung-Qi , clears heat and blood heat, eliminates phlegm by enhancing the function of heart, liver, large intestine and lung channels.
d. Yi Yi Ren (Semen coicis)
Yi Yi Ren is also known as Coix Seed. The sweet, bland, slightly cool herb has been used in TCM to improve digestion, enhance the lung function, get rid of bacterial or fungal infection and treat neualgia, difficulty in urination, lung abscess as it drains water, strengthens the Spleen; eliminates obstruction and clears Heat by promoting the functions of spleen, stomach, lung channels.
e. Pu Gong Ying ( Herba Taraxaci Mongolici cum Radice)
Pu Gong Ying also best known as Dandelion. The bitter, cold and sweet herb has been used in TCM as a diuretic and to promote bile secretion, protect the liver, inhibit staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa as it clears heat, expels toxins, drains Dampness by enhencing the function of liver and stomach channels.
C. Kidney and liver yin deficiency
Kidney and liver yin deficiency cause of yang elevation, toxin accumulation and blood stagnation, leading to the forming of tumor in the bladder
This type is mostly seen at the advanced age, or chemotherapy or radiotherapy cause of heat reaction or complicated by infection.
1. Symptoms include
1.a. Frequent urination, sometimes
1.b. Blood in the urine
1. c. Abdominal distension and pain
1.d. Back pain
1.e. Dry mouth but don't like to drink
1.g. Light red tongue with little fur, or uncoated and smooth tongue
1. h. Thready pulse
1. i. Etc.
The main functions of herb are to nourish yin, invigorate kidney, clear stagnation and detoxify.
a. Mai Dong (Tuber Ophiopogonis Japonici)
Mai Dong is also known as Ophiopogon Root. The sweet, slight bitter and cold herb has been used in TCM to improve contraction of heart muscles, recovery of cells of the pancreas and immune system, protect heart muscle, lower blood sugar and anti-arrhythmia as it
moistens the lungs, nourishes Lung-Yin, benefits the stomach and the heart, promotes generation of body fluids, clear heat by promoting the functions of heart, lung, stomach channels.
2. Shi Hu (Herba Dendrobii)
Shi Hu is also known as Dendrobium. The sweet, bland, slightly cold herb has been used in TCM to treat weakness after febrile diseases, thirsty, thromboangitis obliterans, chronic throat infection, blurry vision and weak lower back as it nourishes the stomach and yin, clear heat, promotes generation of body fluids by enhancing the lung and stomach channels.
c. Nu Zhen Zi (Fructus Ligustri Lucidi)
Nu Zhen Zi is also known as Glossy Privet Fruit. The bitter, sweet and neutral herb has been used to promote immune system and circulatory system, anti inflammatory, anti cancer properties, lower blood sugar and protect the liver as it tonifies the liver and kidneys, clears heat and improves vision by soothing the functions of liver and kidney channels.
d. Long Kui (Herb Solani nigri)
Long Kui is also known as wonderberry. The bitter, cold, slightly sweet and toxic herb has been used in TCM as diuretic and antipyretic and to treat acute kidney inflammation, chronic bronchitis, throat cancer, larynx Cancer, uterus cancer as it clears heat, eliminates toxin, improve urination by enhancing the function of liver, kidney and stomach channels.
e. Fu Ling (Sclerotium Poriae Cocos)
Fu Ling is also known as Indian Bread. The sweet, bland, neutral herb has been used in TCM as a diuretics and to treat insomnia or forgetfulness, loss of appetite and inflammation of the uterus and chronic sinusitis as it eliminates water, strengthens the spleen, calms the mind, clear damp-heat by enhancing the function of heart, spleen, lung, kidney channels.
In traditional Chinese medicine, the herb, Ling Zhi (Reishi mushroom) is viewed to contain certain substances which process the antibacteria, antivirus and antitumor properties over thousands of year. In general public, most mushrooms contain the same values but differing in volume.
1. Shiitake or Chinese black mushroom
Shiitake contains protein, glutamic acid, low cholesterol, β-glucosidase and 18 amino acids. Some researchers found that shiitake mushroom may stimulate the immune system, possess antibacterial properties, reduce platelet aggregation, and possess antiviral properties, possibly through antiviral agents known as proteinase inhibitors. Lentinan in Shiitake enhances the immune function and prevents our body against cancer. The substance of interferon inducer may be used to treat cancer.
2. Agaricus campestris
Agaricus campestris contains high amount of B vitamin and inorganic salts. In rat study, researchers found that Agaricus campestris inhibits the progression of cancer cells.
3. Hericium erinaceus
One of the favorite food in many Chinese expensive recipe, Hericium erinaceus may inhibit the growth of tumor. In China, Some of the pharmaceutical drug company have made them in form of Mushroom slices for use in preventing and treating stomach and Esophageal cancer.
Tremella contains high amount of fiber, protein, calcium, polysaccharides, etc. Researchers found that tremella enhances the immune system scavenging, T cells and B lymphocytes functions, thus preventing the progression of cancer cells.
Beside it has been used in TCM to treat liver inflammation, ulcer and lower blood cholesterol, in 1982 study, researchers in Japan found that certain substances in flammulina help to protect our body against cells DNA mutation cause of cancer.
Coix Seed, Shepherd's purse and pig Tripe soup
Coix Seed 100g，Shepherd's purse 60g，pig Tripe 150 g，dried Tangerine Peel 6 g
a. Take away fat from pig tripe the cut to small slice, then clean it well with water after stirring with a little bit of salt and corn starch
b. Clean Coix seed, Sherpherd'spurse and dried tangerine peel in water
c. Put all of them in the pit with high heat, after boiling, turn to lower heat for 1-1/2 hours
The recipe is for the use to clear heat, move fluid, nourish yin and cool blood, thus treating bladder, kidney and diuretic related tumors or after surgery or chemotherapy.
** Use only for symptoms of urination with brown color blood, back and joint pain, thirsty, redden tongue, little coating.
** Not suitable for patients with liver and kidney yin deficiency, prolonged urination with blood, little color in urine, fatigue, short of breath, back and joint cold with pain, thirsty but don't like to drink, pale yellow and smooth and tender tongue.
** Do not use this formula for patients with exogenous heat
** If you can replace pig liver with pig tripe